Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Federal Express is a planetary express transit and logistics company that provides planetary transportation clients, is a individual beginning for logistics and supply concatenation solution. It was founded in 1973 by Frederick W. Smith. Since its origin, FedEx express bringing industry has pioneered. Express bringing company focused on the chief concern and clients around the universe nightlong bringing service is provided. However, old economic system concerns and the new FedEx clients forced myself at dark bringing service Ã¢â¬Ëto alteration the location for the economic system Ã¢â¬Ë one halt store for concern requires complete logistics Ã¢â¬Ë . Company like General Motors became major groups logistics service supplier.Background:During the late sixtiess, Frederick Smith ( Smith ) , an thought, by the way get down an air hose messenger company. This period, it was common pattern during the American, United or Delta Airlines as a commercial vehicle as a bundle to direct goods . The exercising because many rider air hoses lacks by and large during the dark and twenty-four hours flight was operated. In add-on, cargo forwarders ( the company Ã¢â¬Ës return from the airdrome responsible for bundles finish reference ) normally did non offer place bringing. Smith is an air hose messenger company that started all these jobs need to be felt. During his college old ages, he admitted that the United States had become a service-based economic system and a dependable, nightlong bringing service for bundles and paperss wholly transit design company is needed. Write a Yale term this thought, Ã¢â¬Ëand Ã¢â¬Ë C Ã¢â¬Ëgrade achieved. His professor thought it would ne'er work. Fortunately for Frederick Smith, he did non take to bosom and Smith found that for investors buil donging the company for $ 40 million, 8 million dollars in the household used the money ready to lend over dreamed of, and bank received support. But with 80 million dollars he started Federal Expr ess, the largest company of its clip making sometimes funded by venture capital. The conveyance and logistics industry expressed FedEx household jointly are able to vie. FedEx Ã¢â¬Ës merchandising scheme is for all FedEx companies to further cooperation, but the action and run individually in each company Ã¢â¬Ës strengths and markets are different. Today, FedEx offered by a planetary express bringing services, little package of land distribution, including low-truckload cargo bringing and planetary logistics, supply concatenation direction and electronic commercialism declaration. Federal Express is the universe Ã¢â¬Ës largest bundle bringing company. FedEx in the United States in the dark market for labour division clients, pricing and bettering the quality of services with the exclusive focal point Ã¢â¬Å" started its operations. Since so, the cardinal papers for the full North America and cargo services has more than 212 states and abroad for. [ Visionary Leadership: Laminitis of FedEx Mr. Frederick Smith recognized that American Economy is traveling towards being a Service economic system. He identified the Gap bing in papers and goods bringing, prepared a concern program and started the first nightlong bringing service therefore going the innovator in the express bringing concern. ] Federal Express Corporation was airy leading Express Transport and Logistics with a beginning of favoritism in the industry to FedEx became the first mover: the complete supply concatenation direction control of its ability to assist. FedEx number onesÃ¢â¬ ¦ Nightlong bundle bringing company dedicated toA Offer next-day bringing by 10h30 Offer Saturday bringing A fixed clip cargo service offered Money back warrant and free from executing services grounds that a planetary enlargement of its web Document tracking enabling clients to cognize the exact position of their cargo. Fedex leading recognized the demand for Amalgamations and Acquisitions really early in the industry. They felt that clients Ã¢â¬Ë demands are diverse and requires different concern theoretical accounts to manage them. FedEx tailored its Ã¢â¬Ë concerns to fulfill this demand.AUse engineering resources for the company and has the ability to provide its ain hard for rivals to fit service.FedEx criterions for the company has been mostly successful because of their proficient advancement. Better client service and quality to them that any engineering company is allowed to hold alone. Any company with velocity and preciseness that Federal Express bundle was offered was the dark of bringing. ission Statement FedEx service mission statement of Ã¢â¬Å" for better fiscal benefits for shareholders by supplying high value, production, operation of companies through focussed logistics, transit and information on related services. One of the highest quality of client demands to the appropriate market country methods will be met. FedEx your employees, spouses and providers to endeavor to develop reciprocally good dealingss. shall protect all operations have already considered. the highest ethical and professional criterions of corporate activities Ã¢â¬Å" organized will. The mission statement indicates that FedEx has a clear focal point. ( 1 ) The chief focal point is to convey back the shareholders. ( 2 ) above the value they add merely one other thing to take topographic point more accent will be beyond their service. ( 3 operations ) supplies their attending, will transport and related information. The mission statement to concentrate adequate to diversify illustration, nutrient merchandises, yet obscure plenty to let growing in those countries all have to FedEx. Federal Express Five-Point Strategy Federal Express has five schemes that govern concern scheme. Improve service degrees for these, unit costs are low, international leading to set up and keep profitableness, is close to such clients, and retain people-Service-profit philosopher. Original plants alone FedEx runing scheme Ã¢â¬â and at the same time Ã¢â¬â on three degrees. iÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã · Collectively combat A As a trade name in the universe by standing and talking with one voice. iÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã · Operating independently A To concentrate on our independent web by specific client demands. iÃ¢â¬Å¡Ã · Collaboratively Management A To work by our employees, clients and maintain loyal relationships with investors. Monetary value Peoples: We value our people and promote diverseness in the workplace and in our thought. Service: Our perfectly positive spirit in the bosom of everything we do set our clients. Invention: We encourage innovations and services and engineering that the manner we live and work must better. Honesty: We conduct, finance and services, honestness, efficiency and dependability to take. Duty: we safe and healthy environment for the communities we live and work title-holder. Loyalty: We respect our people and FedEx, clients and investors gained assurance every twenty-four hours in everything we do, ( B transit ) and logistics substructure within FedEx Corporation FedEx 7 of which the first dark, eight bundles started his run by directing one employee to another prosecution had references. Company since twenty-four hours one to cover with every surprise has 9.8 million cargos. FedEx Ã¢â¬Ës Infrastructure Overview: Managing 9.8 million cargos per twenty-four hours More than 700 aircraft, Lift capacity of 12 million kilograms per twenty-four hours More than 220 states through 375 airdromes serviced Permanent staff strength of more than 140.000 all over the universe 500,000 calls were dealt with professionally Purple Promise of clip with this new substructure and has been linked with, Ã¢â¬Å" I make every FedEx experience outstanding Ã¢â¬ with aggregation and bringing of each cargo is received. When a main road truck physical objects most often travel paths normally taken. But as more vehicles tracking the main road, and are now in the signifier of trips, bundles, are long lost, bad, or get down to come at all. The solution, faster, with their ain hardware and substructure and more attending is being entered bearers: FedEx, UPS, airborne express, and so on. These new bearers to turn to velocity, tracking, charge, quality of service and mechanization. He is besides the concluding distribution system, except that travel through the centre of town have non been prepared, and the route is non in the other manus. And eventually, they offer alternate services to do life easy for many of shipper and receiver both.Home Delivery Infrastructure:Three centres are being constructed that Dallas, Cincinnati and Hagerstown, MD, Memphis, Tamil Nadu is the 4th centre. Center enlargement undertaking will spread out the bing 30 centres, it Ã¢â¬Ës about the terminal of 2010 financial twelvem onth the company Ã¢â¬Ës mean day-to-day bundle volume capacity will duplicate to centre. Expansion undertaking is for consumers by FedEx shipment online retail merchants would back up a rapid development. New Florida orbiter distribution centre pompano near Fort Lauderdale, in between two bing joint three times the size of installations must, and about 356 employees and independent contractors, an addition of 200 from the current joint figure one work force will open with employees and independent contractors. FedEx Ã¢â¬Ës smart post-processing and distribution of the fastest strain engineering ensures bundle. The engineering bundles in the procedure of distribution provides shipment visibleness, while they are on the manner to your finish. The bundles are ever knows where and where they are traveling following enables. Advanced control systems, sophisticated automated sorters, and the province Ã¢â¬â of-art informations aggregation devices FedEx detailed information about every bundle enable to take. And extremely skilled squad to the full supplies 100s of 1000s of bundles a twenty-four hours good equipped. Customer Equipment is located on secure web site, custom-make each client Ã¢â¬Ës alone demands are. These devices use information for timely distribution, logistics analysis, appeared extension, and charge inside informations, as required to decently box bringing scheme planning bundles offer the ability to do the necessary studies. As a leader in bundle bringing industry, FedEx provides information and an on-going footing and to analyze the demand to heighten logistics operations describing.AInformation engineeringLate in the 1970s, FedEx use IT to simplify their concern processes seen much benefit. Smith understood that velocity, dependability and client service an indispensable factor for success in the planetary transit industry, but it was excessively early.IT Human ResourcesFedEx topographic point synergistic picture instructions ( IVI ) that the employees themselves to take advantage of slack clip at any clip of twenty-four hours the train was allowed to. Program used for preparation and test ( FedEx employee in the client service cognition was tested twice a twelvemonth ) .IT in client serviceFedEx besides use a client that proctor assorted facets of minutess to better its client service. To accomplish Ã¢â¬Å" 100 % truth on all minutess, quality and client satisfaction Ã¢â¬Ëwas. A system used was unda maged bundle FedEx service quality index ( SQI ) that Ã¢â¬ every portion of a trade as was quantified? Customer was billed right? Ã¢â¬Å"Internet entree1990 threw unfastened the decennary with important chances for FedEx widespread usage of the Internet. Since the company already has an EDI-based system on which it had spent a batch of money, FedEx for the Internet and decided to utilize a combination of EDI. One illustration was applied to the purchase of merchandises. FedEx one merchandise from a company Ariba. Telephone purchased on an intranet-based Ariba requisitioning system was FedEx. System is so fit that FedEx providers catalogs can be accessed by any employee that could keep a database. The company Ã¢â¬Ës web site more than 63 million alone visitants per month and hosts 24 million bundle tracking petitions day-to-day mean grips. More than 2 million clients every twenty-four hours with the company associated electronics, electronic minutess and about two tonss Ã¢â¬â more than five million cargos made day-to-day tierces FedEx. FedEx universe Ã¢â¬Ës largest computing machine and telecommunications web of more than 75,000 computing machines and 1000s of manus Ã¢â¬â held computing machine webs that operate and track cargos recorded. FedEx has more than 20 million informations centre information direction system, day-to-day minutess, processes more than any other U.S. company. Information engineering has played an interesting function in FedEx Ã¢â¬Ës scheme. As portion of its concern utilizing a big, FedEx an about wholly new group of people has reached. It has maintained its repute and its concern increased at the same clip. The planetary market for clients has created more chances. Now they can bespeak the service wage for that service, and path bundles online. FedEx is now need to speak to clients. In so far as they need them, so that 24 hours per twenty-four hours are free for seven yearss per hebdomad. This is due, FedEx has changed scheme. Now the usage of Internet and other technological progresss have focused on. Because this is such an of import facet of scheme, scheme for execution was about immediate. Compete with other major concerns in the industry, FedEx clients that can be accessed usin engineering service was jurisprudence. He besides provided a service to track the bundle. As they service, developed its repute and concern. FedEx has done many things with their value concatenation of new concern development. First they forever for engineering and IT supplies that they need to work portion communicating is recognized. Work easy and expeditiously the Internet engineering to enable clients and sellers to utilize as a spell between FedEx has developed. For many companies, their clients integrate their Web sites to utilize FedEx engineering is enabled.ATwo inquiries: Ã¢â¬â stigmatization and concern construction 19, January 2000Using information from instance surveies and research, critical appraisal of the benefits and restrictions of amalgamations and acquisitions ( M & A ; A ) Global Transport and Logistics Industry Strategy. FedEx Corporation in 1998 to discourse how to win in the acquisition of Systems caliber, and find whether or non success or failure of the acquisition of Systems quality was it?Conveyance and Logisticss industry amalgamations and acquisitionsConveyance and Logistics ( L & A ; T ) sector denationalization, a important degree of finance elevation and amalgamations and acquisitions activity is characterized by. Minutess are frequently complex and regulative environment, competition issues, affected by or contracted for needful support subsidy action. We merely companies, ports and airdromes, many successful private-sector denationalizations groups have continued to turn through acquisitions made and seen. Other countries in the universe in the on-going consolidation among operators and mail, packages, cargo forwarding and logistics contract with Arenas. Postal organisations and the historical and national railroad companies have been oriented to traverse the scope now and concentrate more broad regulative government operated by the commercial demands of the market chances.Conveyance and LogisticssConveyance and Logistics ( L & A ; T ) industry creates the footing for planetary supply concatenation. Postal operators as major logistics suppliers in T & A ; L industry plays a major function as major stakeholders. Changes in recent old ages the campus of a comprehensive national pre-equipment and fiscal services as transnational suppliers emerge has posted. These establishments through developing market liberalisation and denationali zation of mail bringing in its chief markets to confront new competition. Same clip, be put together earlier, their experience in processing may be able to work twelvemonth postal, conveyance and national and international mail bringing and to develop the logistics of supplying a wide palette-based services, direct mail activities and with the flow upstream bundle bringing and payment services. In add-on, many bing logistics and express companies good beyond the simple bringing of services has expanded and now pull off all facets of supply ironss are making. This is an industry tendency that continued rapid client service in all parts of the universe the face of the focal point has changed.AAmalgamations and acquisitions: three types Amalgamation: a trade where two companies on a comparatively equal footing as they integrate their run resources and capablenesss that together make a strong competitory advantage agrees. Acquisition: a contract where a house and its portfolio of concerns more efficaciously within the company Ã¢â¬Ës acquisition by a subordinate of a major potency usage of purpose and the company buys. Acquisition: the acquisition of a coup d'etat where the mark house, the house did non solicit commands.ProblemsAchieving successIntegration Difficulties/Cultures Inadequate evaluationA of mark Excessively much variegation Large or extraordinaryA debt Inability to achieveA synergism Directors excessively focusedA on acquisitions Too big Increased marketA power OvercomeA ent entryA barriers Lower hazard comparedA to developing new merchandises Cost of new productA development Increased velocity toA market Increased variegation Avoid inordinate competitionAcquisitionReasons ForAcquisitionAcquisition net incomeTurning market power: the acquisition of an industry to cut down competitory balance Entry barriers to get the better of: Acquisition Access to the Ã¢â¬Å" can get down up an expensive obstructions to get the better of Ã¢â¬ economic Ugly Costss and hazards of new merchandise development: purchase up reduces the hazard of puting up concern ventures Allows for increased velocity in the market: is closely related to entry barriers, market entry in a timely manner Diversification: Quick manner to travel concern experience in the industry and the house presently lacks deepness Scope will vie: utilizing steadfast acquisitions may restrict their dependance on one or a few merchandises or marketsProblems with acquisitionMerely one Ã¢â¬Å" fiscal squad Ã¢â¬ to garner and Ã¢â¬Ëdecision Ã¢â¬Ë ( two squads: one fiscal and one Ã¢â¬â where the organisational squad organizational says, Ã¢â¬Å" Yes Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å" No Ã¢â¬ should be Integration troubles: hard to divide fiscal and control system integrating companies can Inadequate mark rating: Ã¢â¬Å" Winner Curse command Ã¢â¬ overpay for acquisitions, the company Large or unusual recognition: expensive, heavy debt load on hard currency escapes can make Synergy inability to obtain: Justifying acquisitions can increase expected net income estimation Multiple coevalss: to get the direction expertness required is non unrelated concern Coevals of directors focus on the acquisition: the director Ã¢â¬Ës acquisition scheme through independent house assess the value of the consequences may neglect Very big: invention and flexibleness reduces a big bureaucratism FedEx Corporation has acquired 31 while taking bets in 3 companies. FedEx Corporation has 22 divestitures during this period.AThree inquiries: Ã¢â¬â Events in January 2000 taking to reconstitutingUsing appropriate illustrations from FedEx Corporation, critically evaluate FedEx Ã¢â¬Ës fiscal and non-financial public presentation in the context of developments in the Ã¢â¬Å" Internet market and e-tailing Ã¢â¬ up to the January 2000 reorganisation.Fiscal Performance AnalysisFedEx has an impressive public presentation record since many old ages. Particularly, in 1998 the gross [ $ 15.9 billion ] of the company has grown 15 per centum when comparing with the grosss in 1997. Over the past 5 twelvemonth period of clip, Gross saless have been turning steadily. But, on the other manus, the net income seems that non really impressive when we compare with the gross revenues. But, the truth was, due to the sudden additions in cost of the fuel it has been refused in 1997. In contrast, in the twelvemonth of 1998 the net income was quickly grown from $ $ 200,000 to $ 500,000. As of the FedEx studies, it is because of acquisition of the subordinates and from decrease in operating costs. FedEx Ã¢â¬Ës fiscal statements shows that its assets have non been utilized good as other houses in their industry, but their profitableness is better than other industry houses. Still they must diminish merchandising and administrative disbursals while increasing gross revenues. Future assets perchance and should be invested in the international market and new concerns, while still puting a nice per centum for technological promotions. The fiscal ratios for FedEx clearly show that a safe sum of debt, a wellness net income, have outstanding gross revenues and the leader of the market in this industry. Therefore, except in the twelvemonth 1997 where costs of the fuel made a batch of problem to this company, but, these statistics show an addition growing of ratios over the period of clip. Disintermediation is the term used to denote the dismantlement of supply concatenation mediators like whole Sellerss, retail merchants etc. Businesss have direct contact with clients and vice-versa. This revolution has been brought about the coming of cyberspace retailing called otherwise as e-tailing. FedEx has been a late entry into this field but has made important in-roads of all time since it ventured into e-tailing. This market is lead by UPS. Online vacation shopping, which accounted for $ 650 million in 1997, grew to approximately $ 4 billion over the vacation season of 1999. At that clip, FDX handled transportation for merely 10 per centum of all goods sold online, compared to the 55 per centum handled by UPS, which had forged confederations with the likes of e-tailing elephantine amazon.com. The e-commerce market all over the Earth would increase up to $ 128 billion, including $ 18 billion in Ã¢â¬Å" e-tailing, Ã¢â¬ or business-to-consumer gross revenues, and about $ 110 billion in business-to-business minutess [ Forrester Research ] . Every twelvemonth, on-line disbursement is on the rise with over 1 million new clients acquiring added to online marker. Therefore, Harmonizing to the Forrester estimations, Merely for the Online consumers from many states would pass about $ 5 billion. Which is about blink of an eye than comparing with the sum in 2009, this means that conveying the families for shopping online over 18million. A FedEx has realized early in its journey that engineering shall play a major function in its growing. It has made important investings in geting province of the art engineering and has equipped its employees with necessary accomplishments to manage modern equipment. COSMOS is an ideal illustration of it Ã¢â¬Ës committedness to utilize engineering to convey about client satisfaction. When we look at the studies of FedEx since two decennaries, the company was wholly involved the information concern. Harmonizing to Smith, he tried to maintain attending towards knowledge such as monetary value, estimated clip of reaching, finish, present whereabouts, lading Ã¢â¬Ës beginning, and cost of cargo is besides, most valuable facet as brand certain safe bringing. At the same clip, Mr. Smith insisted develop a information systems web of state-of-the-art ; a sophisticated combination of optical maser scanner, saloon codifications, package, and electronic connections-be erected alongside the a ir and vehicle webs. Non-financial Performance Analysis FedEx being a planetary participant has ever had the economic systems of graduated table in its operation. They provide services that cover about every major town in the universe. The infra construction available helps it to seamlessly incorporate its concern across different clip zones. It has a strong trade name image that is globally recognized for quality service. FedEx offers service in the full scope of transit and logistics concern. Powered by strong direction committedness, FedEx has forged many utile confederations that have helped to catch important market portion in all the sectors of its operations. Strategy to run each concern independently helped FedEx to provide to that specific market. Rising fuel monetary values act as serious hindrance impacting FedEx profitableness. Labor differences are another country of concern for FedEx. With deeper client base, broader planetary range, FedEx is strongly positioned to harvest the benefits of cyberspace and e-tailing markets.A
The Romanesque art period started from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 13th century, or later, depending on region. The preceding period is known as the Pre-Romanesque. The term was invented by 19th century art historians, which retained many basic features of Roman architectural style. Mostly round-headed arches, as well as barrel vaults, apses, and acanthus-leaf decoration but had also developed many very different characteristics. The Romanesque style was the first style to impact the whole of Catholic Europe, from Denmark to Sicily.Romanesque art consisted of sculptures, made out of metal, enamel, and ivory work. Metals were a very high status in this period, much more than the paintings. Metal sculptures included enamel decorations, for example The Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral by Nicholas of Verndun. It is said to contain the bones of the Biblical Magi, also known as the Three Kings or the Three Wise Men. The shrine is a large gilde d and decorated triple sarcophagus placed above and behind the high altar of Cologne Cathedral.It is the largest reliquary, which is known as a shrine, in the western world. Another example of Romanesque metal work is the Cloisters Cross. It is an unusually complex 12th century ivory Romanesque altar cross in The Cloisters. The cross is carved from walrus ivory and measures 22 5/8 by 14 1/4 inches. The carvings that are covering both the front and the back contain ninety-two carved figures and ninety-eight inscriptions. The figures, each of which is only about one-half inch tall, illustrate a number of Biblical scenes. Also readÃ DriverÃ¢â¬â¢s Ed Module Reflection JournalAside form the sculptures Romanesque art was known for its wall paintings. The large wall surfaces and plain, curving vaults of the Romanesque period lent themselves to mural decoration. Many of the early wall paintings have been destroyed by moisture and some walls have been re plastered and painted over. Majority, if not all, wall paintings were in churches. The Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, which is located in Poitou, France, is home to many of these murals. One of these murals is, Ã¢â¬Å"God speaks to NoahÃ¢â¬ . This mural was done using the Fresco technique.The Fresco technique is a painting done on fresh plaster (calcina), which is done immediately on freshly applied plaster before it dries. Another type of Romanesque art is embroidery. Romanesque embroidery is best known from the Bayeux Tapestry. The Bayeux Tapestry is a 0. 5-by-68. 38-meter long embroidered cloth, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman Conquest of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. The tapestry is annotated in Latin. Another popular type of embroidery is called the Opus Anglicanum or English work.It is a contemporary term for fine needlework of Medieval England done for ecclesiastical or secular use on clothing, hangings or other textiles, primarily by nuns and then by professionals who had served seven years' apprenticeship in secular workshops. Stained glass is the colored and painted glass of medieval Europe from the 10th to the 16th century. For much of this period stained glass windows were the major pictorial art form, particularly in northern France, Germany and England where windows tended to be larger than in southern areas.Glass was both expensive and fairly flexible meaning it could be added to or re-arranged, seems to mostly be used in churches, but were also found in wealthy domestic settings and public buildings such as town halls. The purpose of stained glass windows in a church was both to enhance the beauty of their setting and to inform the viewer through narrative or symbolism. Most of the magnificent stained glass of France, including the famous windows of Chartres, dates from the 13th century. Few large windows that date back from the Twelfth century are intact, one of them being the Crucifixion of Poitiers.It is a remarkable composition that rises through three stages. The lowest with a quatrefoil depicting the Martyrdom of St Peter, the largest central stage dominated by the crucifixion and the upper stage showing the Ascension of Christ in a mandorla. The window has been described as, Ã¢â¬Å"a remarkable beautyÃ¢â¬ . The earliest intact figures are five prophet windows at Augsburg, dating from the late Eleventh century. The figures, though stiff and formalized, demonstrate proficiency in design, both pictorially and in the functional use of the glass. One particular is called, Ã¢â¬Å"The Prophet DanielÃ¢â¬ .
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The novel Ã¢â¬Ë Of Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ is set in America and is about two travelling workers who have been chased off one ranch because Lennie, one of the men did not know how to behave himself. Lennie is large, heavy and ponderous and George is small quick, dark, sharp and restless. Another tragedy happens on the ranch like in weed because Lennie used his strength to kill CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. I can sympathise with CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife although she was a flirt with the other men she was not expecting to be killed by Lennie. We first meet CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife in chapter two. She is described as heavily made up and wears tarty red shoes. She poses her figure outlined in the doorway of the bunkhouse and is always aware that men are looking at her. This makes me think that she is just looking for attention from the men. George shows the reader that he does not like Curleys wife because George tells Lennie that she is jailbait and for Lennie to stay away from her. Lennie seeÃ¢â¬â¢s her as an attractive young lady but she is really just a threat to the men on the ranch. In chapter three there is a big fight involving Curly and Lennie. Curley has not liked Lennie since he was looking at Curleys wife so Curley just lost his rag and started punching Lennie but then Lennie just reached for Curley and just grabbed his hand and started squeezing his hand and his hand crumbled in Lennies hand, George told Curley to tell everybody that he got his hand caught in the machine and that is what he told everyone. This just shows how CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is acting like a tart and a flirt to get all the men in trouble with Curley.Curley feels insecure because of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. In chapter 4 Curleys wife was heavily made. I can sympathise with her because all she is trying to do is make some friends on the ranch but every time she tries to talk to someone they all think she is trying to flirt because she is desperate for attention because she has got an unhappy marriage with Curley and that the men think that she is trying to get them in trouble with Curley.I fell sorry for Curleys wife because on the ranch she was all alone. In chapter 5 we learn that Curleys wife had a dream to be in the movies. I do feel sorry for CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife because she could have been in the movies but that was just a pipe dream because now she is stuck on the ranch married to Curley with no friends. Curley and his wife have only been married for two weeks and already they both hate it being together on the ranch. I think Steinbeck is trying to get across to the readers that she has no one in the whole world that cares for her. Her death was brutal and quick, at first lennie was just playing with the pup then he broke its neck and that is what he done to CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. My final thoughts on Curleys wife is all she was trying to do is make friends on the ranch but she just got pushed out everyone. In chapter six it is hard to feel sympathy for her because she was flirting with the men but she did not deserve to be killed by Lennie. I feel sympathy for CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife although she was a big flirt and she got treated badly by Curley, she did not deserve to be killed. I think Steinbeck included CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife in the story because I think that she makes the story interesting because she is the story.
Monday, July 29, 2019
How students use social media - Assignment Example According to the research carried out by Lenhart et al. (2010), people between 18 and 29 years of age account for 57 per cent of the total population of users of the social networks and maintain personal profiles on a range of social media websites. Pempek, Yermolayeva, and Calvert (2009) noted that although the amount of time spent by the users on social networking websites varied considerably, yet a vast majority of the users spend up to half an hour a day socializing on the social networking sites mostly from 9 p.m. to 12 a.m whereas students spend 47 minutes a day on the Facebook on average. More than half of the total population of students in colleges visits social networking sites numerously in a day (Sheldon, 2008). Types of social media commonly used by the students include but are not limited to blogs, chats on Twitter and Facebook, social networks, wikis, podcasts, videos, photo sharing on sites like Flickr, and gamification. A blog is a webpage or website that can easily be updated. Authors of blogs write regular entries in the format of a diary. The most interesting and effective blogs provide the students with an opportunity to engage in conversations with the bloggers as well as other readers who have commented on the blogs. Microblogging, as the name implies, is the process of writing very brief blog posts, that are sort of text messages. Presently, the most popular service of microblogging is provided by Twitter that provides the students with the opportunity to post the entries as long as 140 characters. Using Twitter, students can not only read their messages online but also can send their posts as text messages to one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s mobiles. Social networking websites like Faceboo k serve as platforms using which the students can connect with one another and engage in different kinds of activities both academic and otherwise. Facebook and MySpace
Sunday, July 28, 2019
HCM621-0804A-01 Ethics, Policy, and Law in Health Care Management - Phase 2 Discussion Board - Essay Example (Safire, 1993) The Watergate scandal impacted our current privacy act and health care privacy laws. If you go to The False Claims Act Legal Center (http://www.taf.org) you will find out of the top 100 claims of violations and fines, over 50 of them are health care institutions. For example, July 2006, Tenet Healthcare had billing violations that include manipulation of outlier payments to Medicare, as well as kickbacks, upcoding, and bill padding. June 2006, St. Barnabas Healthcare, filed false "outlier" Medicare payments (41%) which a hospital can claim if a procedure is particularly difficult or complex. January 2000, Fresenius Medical Care, the worlds largest provider of kidney dialysis products and services, was caught in a scam which involved fraudulent and fictitious blood testing, kickbacks to dialysis facilities to obtain blood testing contracts for LifeChem, and fraudulent claims submitted to Medicare for intradialytic parenteral nutrition. (TAF, 2006) Different kinds of human nature are the driving force behind violations of ethics. Some people are motivated by weighing the risk of getting caught versus the benefit of the fraudulent act. Others might be acting in the interest of rivalry Ã¢â¬â will this act cause them to move ahead of the competition? A desire to succeed can sometimes cause shortcutting or sidestepping ethical policies. Some people follow the rules of ethics simply because they do not wish to pay the consequences. Many are motivated to keep ethical standards by their own sense of fairness and self-respect. They self-police their own actions based on their moral code learned over time. And finally, some people simply do not know what the standards of ethics are about Ã¢â¬â never assume all people share the same education and ability to absorb external training. Since it is our business to provide ethical treatment and care for our customer Ã¢â¬â itÃ¢â¬â¢s in our own best interest to exceed minimum legal
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Article Review - Essay Example On the other hand, both coal and nuclear have little or no energy storage needs and both have been thoroughly analysed in a cost analysis to promote further interest by the business community to build more plants of both types. The authors grant that both these sources come with tremendous environmental impact, and in fact refer to them as Ã¢â¬Ëenvironmental delinquents,Ã¢â¬â¢ but they purport that they both are essential Ã¢â¬ËwedgesÃ¢â¬â¢ in the power capacity production of the world. However the tremendous amount of carbon emissions produced by coal energy and the problem of nuclear waste storage and the high cost to produce nuclear energy are daunting problems for these resources. Coal itself produces the lion share of energy for the planet. Its use is expected to rise 73% by the year 2030, due primarily to the economic emergence of both India and China. If this scenario is true than greenhouse gases are also projected to increase by 56% within the same time frame. The authors point out that the Ã¢â¬Ëgood newsÃ¢â¬â¢ is that there are alternatives to reduce these carbon emissions by sequestering the gasses in large underground chambers. However the technology and lack of fail-safe protocols are counter productive to implementing this technology. There is also the process of Coal gassification, which separates out the various gasses from raw coal and makes the sequestering of Carbon Dioxide a more simplified process. A by-product of this would also create hydrogen gas that can be burned and also used as fuel. They also site the continued abundance of fossil fuels as a source for energy far into the future. While research continues in to the area of Clean Co al plants, most researchers admit that it is an impossible pipe dream. Nuclear energy, on the other hand, has had its bout of black-eyes such as the Cernoble and Three-Mile Island disasters. The authors admit this was very bad press for production of more nuclear
Friday, July 26, 2019
Organisational management in health care Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words
Organisational management in health care - Essay Example Also, regular medical check-ups help maintain the physical fitness of workers and guarantee that work flow will not be derailed due to health reasons. On their part, workers in the healthcare profession should be conscientious enough to provide high quality service. To achieve this, good team work must be established. The unified vision of what the organization wants to achieve and where it wants to go in the future in terms of quality, professionalism, services offered and expertise is what each of the team should aspire for. This paper attempts to analyze how workers in healthcare organizations can work together to attain above-average organizational outcomes. Aside from workers being efficient in the performance of their tasks, key factors in the journey to a teamÃ¢â¬â¢s success are, good leadership, effective communication and objective evaluation of the teamÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and quality of service. Management must be consistent in communicating to each worker its philosophy of providing the best quality health care and treatment through collaborative efforts of professionals from different disciplines. Each worker should be able to feel that he is part of a great team that sets high goals and successfully attains them. Ã¢â¬Å"Creating the conditions that engender knowledge transfer entails significant structural and cultural changes by top leadership, which will require leaders to be convinced that the benefits of knowledge transfer outweigh the costs. In the absence of this commitment, it is unlikely that attempts to increase knowledge flow will succeed. Leaders should be cautious about publicly touting the virtues of "knowledge sharing" without a substantive commitment to change, as this may result in the failure of well-intentioned knowledge transfer initiatives, bringing with it lowered employee morale and the potential for resistance against future knowledge-transfer init iatives.Ã¢â¬ (Burgess, 2005) Leadership may be defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"process in which a
Thursday, July 25, 2019
A Rose for Emily - Research Paper Example This situation injured Emily and her world was divided into before and after. Representing the main character the author makes an allusion to the New South. By such type of personification and allusion the author shows the New South as independent and mighty fighter for rights. The story is worth-discussing, thus the given paper will try to answer the question why Emily arouses sympathy with readers notwithstanding that she is a murderer. The first issue that will be discussed is the correlation of past and present as well as their confrontation. The main heroine Emily still lived in her past, thus she suffered a lot. She was not ready to get rid of the ties, which were important for her. From this side the murder of Homer can be easily explained. She did it intentionally. He was her lover and she wanted to keep him and the feeling, so the best way to do that was to murder him. The reader can feel a motif of independence and superciliousness. Emily scorned all the tittle-tattles abou t her private and social life that appeared in the town. Her relations with her beloved Homer belonged to her private life and the main problem of her social life was her refusal to pay taxes that became the subject of gossips. The act of murder can be interpreted as a symbol of independence. We can notice that this independence is also portrayed in her appearance. Ã¢â¬Å"She carried her head high enough - even when we believed that she was fallen. It was as if she demanded more than ever the recognition of her dignity as the last Grierson; as if it had wanted that touch of earthiness to reaffirm her imperviousnessÃ¢â¬ (p.82). Iron-grey hear of Emily arouses a number of associations. Emily tried to live and conduct her personal life without any superstitions. The important question is what the hidden sense is and how it was depicted by the author. There are a lot of interpretations that refer to the plot of this story, its concealed meaning and secret sense. It is essential one s hould pay special attention to the methods and devices, which were applied by the author to create intrigue. Faulkner is not only a great narrator, but also a master of symbolism and characterization (O'Connor). It was mentioned that the iron-grey hair of Emily symbolized strength and independence. Another important symbol is the rose. It is one of the main and the most significant symbols in the story. If to analyze the story deeper it is possible to see that characters of the story are the prototypes of Old and New South (Fetterley 194). In order to understand the character of the main heroine better, it is essential to pay special attention to Homer Barron; the author depicted him as one of those men who liked to drink with younger guys. Women usually do not like such behavior and Emily was not an exception: Ã¢â¬Å""She will persuade him yet," because Homer himself had remarke
Research Proposal Example Gulf areas in general, and Saudi Arabia in particular, are oil rich regions with the economy being driven by the large oil producing organizations. The required financial support for the SMEs, in order to strengthen their capability to further contribute towards the progress of Saudi ArabiaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, is however somewhat lacking. This is despite the fact that SMEs have evidently exhibited great developmental potential. The current research aims to determine the role that SMEs play in the development of Saudi Arabia; as well as to identify any governmental and other business organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ support provided towards sustaining continued operations and growth of SMEs in the region. This paper be presented with a brief overview of studies and researches previously conducted on the subject through a literature review of SMEs, in general; the financial support of the government for SMEs in Saudi Arabia; and the role that SMEs play towards the development of the country. The ne xt section would focus on the research questions and methodology, which would identify the required method which would achieve responding to the main concerns identified within the discourse. Likewise, any limitation to the study would be presented; prior to delving into the ethical considerations, as required. Finally, the time scales which detail the tasks and time frames for the specific research portions would be detailed in the last section. 2.0 Literature Review There have been several studies conducted on the subject that aimed to determine the role of SMEs, in general; and SMEs within the Saudi Arabia region. Their definitions would be explored, including financial support and development role in the economy of Saudi Arabia. 2.1 Small and Medium Enterprises Though SMEs exist all over the world and in large numbers, there is still no concrete definition for SMEs due to various practical reasons. Fu (2011) suggested that defining SMEs differs from country to country and are ba sed upon different variables such as number of employees, revenue, nature of trade etc. (Fu, 2011). Normally, the number of employees for SMEs are defined at less than or equal to fifty for relatively small organizations whereas for medium organizations, the upper limit of number of employees is normally between 100 to 250 (Capitas, 2013). Thus, SMEs were clearly classified according to the number of employees, as well as the amount of sales revenues generated within a stipulated time frame. Within Saudi Arabia, various organizations define SMEs according to different criteria and are followed by different organizations. There are two important criteria used in defining SMEs within Saudi Arabia. One criteria followed by the SME Development Center is to have less than or equal to 20 employees for small organizations and 21-100 employees for medium organizations. However, Shalaby (2004) concentrated on suggesting that different criterion is being followed by Saudi Industrial Developme nt Fun, and it defines SMEs based upon the revenue criteria
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Painting and Theatre in 16th century Venice and Rome - Essay Example The essay "Painting and Theatre in 16th century Venice and Rome" discovers the 16th-century painting and theater in Rome and Venice. The art of painting and sculpting practiced during this period was characterized, by an acute interest in human beings and their surroundings and by a meticulous recording of detail, especially that of human anatomy. The classic art developed individually at different places with the center of activity being Rome. Venice was altogether active in its own manner and remained more or less unaffected and uninfluenced with the movements in rest of the Italy. The principle of perspective was a revolutionary finding in the fifteenth century which was to govern the progress of painting in the next century. With the help of these principles, making of technically correct three dimensional drawing on a two dimensional surface became possible. This gave a major direction for painting to progress as this added feature helped to draw technically correct and proporti onate objects in foreground and background providing a new meaning and understanding to the art of painting. Proportion and size of the object in painting were given more importance and this precision and exactness was taken further by going in to detail of individual elements. This perfectionist approach came to be known as movement of classicism in the field of art. Venice was an important and prosperous centre during this period which had grown powerful financially and politically. The city being geographically separated. from the mainland of Italy developed a distinct style of painting which came to be known as the Venetian school of painting2 with prominent artists like Giovanni Bellini, Titian and Giorgione shaping its course. Giovanni initiated the styles of painting which was later taken to new heights by his pupils, Titian and Giorgione. Venice being a city of lagoon, there was high shortage of land. Only the privileged could afford a garden in the house. People used to cra ve for a spreading view of land and this was reflected in the paintings of Venice. The theme of paintings was mainly based on the landscapes rich with natural beauty. Venetian school for painting is known for its rich and atmospheric quality. The paintings describe nature in details and play with colors and light to show emotion. The use of bright and luminous colors, perfect and minute detail of the landscape and natural elements and the use of indistinct brush strokes were the key characteristics of these paintings. The attempts where directed toward achieving an atmosphere with rich colors and luminous surroundings to fulfill the inner craving for a vast landscape to live in. The use of light filled colors like orange, yellow and blue are noticeable in these paintings. The knowledge of perspective was explored to greater depths and complex landscape paintings with distinct foreground and background were made. The techniques of two point and three point perspective were also utilized in many cases. The painting of 'the tempest' by Giorgione expresses nature in elaborate detail and 'the adoration of shepherds' shows the use colors and light to depict human emotions. 'The pastoral concert' by Giorgione also provides a good example of takes the Venetian landscape painting in detail. In Venice, a tradition of colorist painting reached its climax in the works of Titian, whose portraits demonstrate a profound understanding of human nature. Titian dominated Venetian painting of this period. In the spirit of the Renaissance, he created scenes of the Greek and Roman classical
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
World Diabetes - Essay Example Diabetes threatens not only the health of individuals, but has also become a significant public health concern. EASD1 suggests the spread of Type 2 diabetes is so rapid that it is approaching epidemic levels. To supply adequate care to those with diabetes, and educate populations about prevention of the disease, quantifying the presence of diabetes in different populations is crucial. Diabetes is a serious illness with multiple complications and premature mortality, accounting for at least 10% of total health care expenditure in many countries. Complex methods have been developed for estimating cause-specific mortality for some conditions (AIDS, tuberculosis) but not for diabetes. Based on routine statistics, recent WHO reports estimated mortality from diabetes in the world as 987,000 deaths for the year 2002, which was 1.7% of total world mortality. Mortality attributable to diabetes may actually be much higher, because individuals with diabetes most often die of cardiovascular and renal disease. The rapid increase of diabetes worldwide is primarily a consequence of population growth, population aging, urbanization, and the increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. Many efforts have been made to explain the causes of Type 2 diabetes. While the pathogenesis of this disease is still not completely understood, it is known that both genetic susceptibility and environmental influences play a role. Diabetes has become a major health problem in many developed countries, and in developing countries the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes has increased significantly in recent years. In China, the prevalence has almost tripled within the last 15 years, from 1% to about 3%. An urbanized, more sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet are thought to contribute greatly to the increase in diabetes and obesity in all ethnic groups. For example, around 90% of all Singaporeans live in high rise government or
Monday, July 22, 2019
Advantages of working from home Essay There is a trend towards making jobs more mobile and allowing employees to access work remotely from home. Technology has also made a great contribution allowing people to work from home. Equipments such as computers, facsimile machines, telephones etc. have revolutionized the work industry and this trend has helped employers, employees and the state at large. An International Telework Association survey found that the number of teleworking employees grew from 41.3 million in 2003 to 44.4 million in 2005 and projects that number to climb to 51 million by 2008 (Marcia Reed-Woodard, Dec 2005). For a company, employees working from home may save them time, space and money. But for an employee, the benefits are much greater. In addition to the above mentioned factors, the employees benefit with flexibility in working hours, avoid distractions and family commitments are easily fulfilled. The greatest advantage is the time factor which can make the job much comfortable working from home. Often at times, time, becomes your ally, expanding or contracting to conform to specific work assignments. The pressure to finish the work or to look busy even when you are not, is eliminated. Therefore, you can fix your own work hours, more or less, as required. You do not have to reach work on time or give a reason for being late, relieving everyday stress. In an event of sickness, you do not need to get a medical or present a reason to the boss. You can still get some work done instead of remaining idle at home. Lunch can be managed and repair works can be done easily while being at home. You can set your own target and get maximum work done according to your wish. You avoid getting in traffic by driving for long hours to get to work and hence you save on fuel charges, car maintenance and also your precious time. Even if you take a two hour lunch no one can punish you as you are your own boss. Secondly, you avoid distractions around you while working at home. You can avoid difficult co-workers who can make your life stressful at work. Also bullies and gossipers can be avoided to give a good peace of mind. Sometimes there are office politics, like the boss favours some one and constantly looks at what you are doing. This calamity avoided can become a boon in concentrating on more work and reaping more benefits since peacefully you can get extra work done without having to face comments from co-workers or boss on the spot. At work you may come in contact with customers who are offensive, abusive etc. while at home no such instances can bother you. Thirdly, you can be with your family and get your work done simultaneously. The notion that parents do not spend time with children can be avoided and proper care can be taken of them at home. Children get more attention and life can be healthier when people around you are happy, and this can boost your self confidence and esteem. If any family member is sick or needs to get some attention, then this task is easily accomplished as you are your own boss. You can take your own decisions at your own will. Members of the family can be of great help when you have a large amount of work such as, typing a report, which can be done by anyone mature enough in the house or also your close friend or relative. Children can have an opportunity to see what their parents do for a living. The financial benefits are also very attractive. Instead of waiting for a boss to give you a raise or a promotion, the amount of money you can earn is directly related to your own performance. Whether the business is the sole means of support or a secondary income, its earning potential is up to you. These days, people who have been frequently shut out of job markets, for example, homemakers, students, retirees, to name a few, can use their home business to create new income opportunities. You save on travel expenses and you do not have to send your children to nurseries if you can be at home, so substantial savings can be made. In conclusion, working from home can be very relaxing and comfortable. We can see that working from home increases efficiency due to fewer distractions, and much greater benefits are reaped due to less stress and office complications. Today more people have home-based businesses, which increases the use of new ideas to generate income. Hence, working from home can be very rewarding and it may be a dream come true if in the future you own a business with your own ideas and independent thinking. References: -Scarry, Sandra and John Scarry. The writers workplace 6thÃ edition. http://choosing-careers.suite101.com/article.cfm/five_reasons_to_be_self_employedhttp://ezinearticles.com/?7-Benefits-of-Working-At-Homeid=51130http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?type=RESOURCESitemId=1073791632
Sunday, July 21, 2019
The Last Lecture: Dr Randy Pausch Carnegie Mellon University asked a set of Professors to give a message of a lifetime as if it was their last lecture before their death. Ironically for Dr. Randy Pausch, it was his last lecture because he had learned that he is going to die soon due to Pancreatic Cancer that has spread to his liver. That is what it is we cannot change that, we just have to deal with it. Dr. Pauschs inspirational speech was not about death; it was about life and how to achieve your childhood dreams. His sense of humor and enthusiasm is what triggered the audience to become inspired with his life lessons. Randy Pausch started off his speech by introducing the elephant in the room which he told the audience that he has been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and will die soon because of it. He chose to tell them about the cancer at the beginning because he believes that if there are issues distracting your audience, address them sooner rather than later. He says that we have to deal with what we are facing because it is not in our hands to change the future. Therefore, instead of feeling depressed, we should try to enjoy the time that we have left. If I do not seem depressed as I should be, sorry to disappoint you. He makes it clear that he is not in denial of whats going on, he is just dealing with the situation in a positive way. Randy knows that he has ten tumors in his stomach and that he only has six months to live; he chooses to spend them with his family rather than worrying about the future. Pausch uses a couple of techniques in his lecture to inspire the audience with his talk. He knows that the audience might get emotional when they learn that he is doing to die soon due to sickness so he creates a sense of humor throughout his lecture as much as possible. For example, he told the audience that even though he is dying soon, I am in much better shape than most of you, and he starts to make push ups to show that them that he is physically strong; the audience respond with laughter and applause. Pausch laughs, smiles and tells a lot of jokes throughout the lecture instead of feeling depressed and sad. Throughout his speech he gives away his stuffed animals, wears an Alice in Wonderland hat, and wears a football jacket because he believes that audience is more likely to have fun and cherish life if they see you doing so in your speeches. Moreover, he could have used a serious tone for this speech. He could have stressed every word as if it were a matter of life or death; however, that would have drawn more attention to his condition instead of his main messag e and the point of the talk was to learn something out of it instead of feeling sorry for him. Due to these reasons, Pausch told the audience at the beginning of the speech that he will not talk about the cancer, wife, or children because the audience is going to get emotional including himself as they are very sensitive topics to discuss. Randy Pausch introduces the main points of the lecture and what he will exactly talk about. Even though Pausch tries to give the impression that the speech is not personal, to some extent it is as the content of the speech are on the personal lessons Randy Pausch has learned through life, and he illuminates these through personal stories. The first topic he addressed is his own childhood dreams and shows the audience pictures of him as a child smiling and looking happy all the time to reveal that he had a great childhood. He also stated that one of the many great things that his parents allowed him to do is paint his own room as he had the chance to express his creativity. As a child he believed that if a man can land on the moon, anything is possible. As a child he always wanted to become an astronaut but he never did; however, NASA created a competition for college students to design a certain project and the winners would go up in to the air in Vomit Comet, (a plane used by astron auts to practice before traveling to the moon) and experience weightlessness as if they are on the moon. Pausch was so excited that his students won until he learns that faculty members are not allowed to join. He makes this point by explaining that this was like a brick wall in his life and Brick walls are there for a reason, they let us prove how badly we want things. Moreover, he didnt give up and he had to fake as a journalist as they were allowed on the plane. Another dream that Pausch shared is the dream of becoming a professional football player and play for the national team which he never did. I got more out of that dream that I didnt accomplish, more than any other dream that I did accomplish. Also, his coach in school would make him do extra push ups, laps, and practice so Randy thought he was making him practice extra just because he didnt think he was good enough until someone told him when you are screwing up and no one is bothering to tell you anything , thats when they give up on you. Moreover, the critiques in our lives are the ones who basically love you and care about you. Also, Randy tells the audience that even though he never got to play as a professional football player, football is still a part of him and while talking, he wears his football jacket and ball and starts playing with it. Another point that Pausch makes that I personally thought it was important is that almost every thing we learn, we learn indirectly. He e xplains that by saying that when we send our children to play football, we dont actually send them to play football but we actually send them to learn skills like teamwork and sportsmanship. Another dream that Pausch shared is the dream of sharing knowledge with other and he did when he was selected to write an article in Wikipedia. Pausch believes that one of the most significant things in life is to share knowledge and pass it on to others. He expresses his humor by saying that being selected to be an author of Wikipedia, now I know that it is a reliable source that you can use. The next dream he introduced is Being like/ meeting captain Kirk which he intended to write it that way to amuse the audience and make them laugh. It was his childhood dream to be like Captain Kirk because it was a show that taught leadership skills. Even though he wanted to be like Captain Kirk he got to meet the actor. Another dream that Randy talked about is being an imagineer at Disney Land. The first time he went to Disney Land as a kid, instead of saying I want to experience this he said, I want to make stuff like that. One thing Randy learned during his experience that I thought was important is When you are pissed off at somebody, you just have to give them time and they will impress you. I believe that he is right because there is no real reason to be upset at anyone as we are all human beings who make mistakes. Also, life is too short to be upset with loved ones and you never know when your life will end. Moreover, Pausch became one of the imagineers who designed the game of Aladdin and Alice in Wonderland. This experience forever changed him as he learned that artists and engineers can invent great things together. Another important thing that he learned which I also thought was important was that all good things come to an end and you should try to enjoy it as much as you can. Later on, Dr. Pausch taught a course at Carnie Mellon University for ten years about building virtual worlds. When Pausch stopped teaching the course he gave handed it someone better to run this course. When you have something so precious, you should hand it to someone better than you. There are many lessons with certain techniques that he used to persuade the audiences with, which were about life that I thought, are important to mention. Its important to have parents and mentors in your life. In this part of the speech, Pausch showed pictures of his parents on rollercoaster to once more create a sense of humor. Also, he said that it is very important to give up the time to help others as we are blessed to have what weve got and others need our help. Moreover, dont complain, just work harder. He gave an example of a baseball player Jackie Robinson who swore he would not complain if people spat on him. I think he gave this example to imply that people complain too much; he is dying and he chooses not to complain. Also, when he was in school and complaining to his mother, she said I know how you feel, remember when your father was your age he was fighting the Germans. Once again she uses this example to create a sense of positive energy in the atmosphere. Another imp ortant message is Have fun I am dying and I choose to have fun. He believes that he cannot tell other how to have fun; it is like telling a fish how to swim in the sea. Finally, apologize when you screw up. I am sorry, I am wrong, and what can I do to make things better. Pausch believes that many people apologize but they are too egocentric to ask What can I do to make things better? In my opinion one of the most memorable moments in the lecture is when Pausch said focus on others, not you and as an example, he got out a huge birthday cake as its his wifes birthday and the audience started to sing Happy Birthday to his wife. In this moment, Randy reveals his emotional side when he hugged his wife. It is very emotional because although throughout the talk he tried to be as enthusiastic and energetic as possible, when it came to his wife he couldnt resist but give a sad face. Also, showing emotions is one of the best ways for a speaker to connect with an audience. Moreover, throughout the lecture he reveals the dreams that he had as a child and how he fulfilled each dream; but in my opinion, I think he the most important dream of all that he wants to fulfill but cannot is the dream of: to live longer and see his children grow up; unfortunately, he cannot fulfill that dream. Dr. Randy Pausch concluded his lecture in a very strong way by summarizing his key points to get his audience to think about what he said. In addition, he reaches back to one of the concepts introduced earlier which was the head fake and reveals that his entire speech has been a pair of head fakes; which makes the audience rethink the whole speech in their heads. Finally, at the very end he reveals that the whole speech was not for the audience but for his wife and children. As a viewer, I realized that at the end of the lecture that Pausch was seizing every opportunity to make speeches and write a book for his children as they are too young to have memories of their father. Moreover, all the childhood dreams and life lessons he has taught throughout the lecture were talks that he wants his children to one day know about them and follow those life lessons he has talked about. In my opinion, even though Dr. Randy Pausch tried to hide his emotional side throughout the lecture, the lecture was to some extent touching to the audience. The fact that hes dying in a couple of months ,yet giving a lecture on how to achieve your dreams and live your life is somewhat emotional to the audience. In addition, his situation makes the audience feel sorry for him even though if its not his intention to this speech. I believe that the speech wouldnt have been that successful if another person who was not ill would have given the same speech. Besides the skillful techniques Pausch used, the audience wouldnt have been as persuaded as they were by a different person preaching the exact same words because they psychologically feel like the need to listen to him because he is dying and in a way they feel sorry for him. Moreover, I believe this reason is one of the several motives to why Dr. Randy Pausch was listed as one of the hundred most influential people in the world.
Issues in the UK: Gender Pay Gap, UK Underclass and Racism What is the gender pay gap and why does it occur? Gender pay gap has been a contentious issue for the last two decades, the recent the international womens day celebration brought the issue into spotlight. Gender pay gap simply the differences in wages paid to men and women. The advocate of gender pay gap argued that men are paid more money than women for the same job, in other word, it is immoral and create inequality in the society. The cent study conducted by the European Union Commission on pay structure across the member states indicated that the main cause of gender pay gap is the way women competencies are measured against men. For instance, jobs that are required limited skills or qualification are undervalued and poorly paid because they are dominated by women. In addition, jobs in the construction companies are dominated by men and the wages structure is higher when compared to jobs like cleaning, cooking or even nursing. This is because employers judge people based on their physicality in this jobs rather than the skills and knowledge of the employer. Another example, is most individual that works as a cashier in the supermarket are women, while men tends to work in the warehouse, stacking shelve and other role that require physical ability, the comparison is the women are pay less because they work on the till compared to men that are involved in physical task. Drolet and Mumford (2011) indicated that gender pay gap is influenced by different factors such as discrimination, stereotyping, family and societal factors. The scholar argued that most women are likely to work in part-time compared to men because they have to undertake other roles such as caring for their children, parent or taking an unpaid job in the society. Hence, because of their limited commitment to work, it is difficult for them to attain managerial roles. The Office for National Statistic figures on earning in 2016 shows that 26% of women earn less than men which indicated that women in full time employment earn less than men by Ã £5,732. Rubery(2015) suggested that gender pay gap is caused by the kind of occupation and industry were women seek work. He argued that women are more commitment to health and social care organisations because they are good with been compassionate and empathy compared with scientific or high tech industries that nurture and pay their employees more for their expertise. Most of the employees of high tech organisations are dominated by men because of the long hours and commitment required for their role. There are many factors that causes gender pay gap, and it essential to have an in-depth understanding of the causes of the problem in order to make any suggestions on how the government and organisation can work together to limit or eliminate pay inequality and stereotyping in our society. One of the main factor of gender pay gap is discrimination, and this could be direct or indirect discrimination. Some organisations prefer to employ men because they are more committed to their job, because of this, they pay them more money and more also, men do not usually take time off to take care of their children or parents compared to women. Recent study conducted by Fawcett Society shows that women are unfairly especially when they return back from maternity. A record number of women are forced to leave their job after having a baby because of poor treatment at work. (Fawcettsociety, 2017). Secondly, womens competences and skills are undervalued, men in the same or similarly role with the same qualification are paid more than women. For instance, Birmingham Council was forced to pay compensation to predominantly women workers such as cook, cleaners, care staff etc. because they were denied bonuses compared to men that works as refuse collector, road workers and street cleaners. The bonus was based on the physical task of the role rather than the skill and knowledge of the individual. On other factor is that women take up more responsibilities that men when it comes to the society and caring. Women have to balance between taking care of their family and work, and tend to work part time because they share Unequal caring responsibilities with men. The argument is that women play a greater role in caring for children, as well as for sick or elderly relatives, as a result they take up mostly part time role that are generally lower paid job with limited progression opportunit ies (Fawcettsociety, 2017). The introduction of Equality Act 2010 has strengthened the right of women in the workplace. It is unlawful for an organisation to discriminate against an individual because of their gender or sex (Dawson, 2014). Likewise, either man or woman should be given equal of opportunity to fulfil their potential. Meaning organisations or employers have to be flexible and consider that women play more role in the society such as taking care of their and parents, and make their job flexible and create a platform for them to progress to managerial role. It should not be based on the hour you put in, but the quality of the work. What is institutional racism in policing? How can we address this issue? The word institutional racism gain prominence during Macphersons report for the racist murder of Stephen Lawrence. Although, it has been used extensively by some scholars study on racism in the past. The findings of the report indicated organisations especially in the public sectors is riddled with institutional racism such as stereotyping, fear and contempt for ordinary people especially a black people (Ray, Smith and Wastell, 1999).MacPherson refers to institutional racism as the collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture, or ethnic origin, and went on to conclude, It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people (Ray, Smith and Wastell, 1999). According to Souhami (2012), stereotyping and discrimination are factors associated with institutional racism. It is about typecasting people because of their race, colour, religion or nationality. Regarding, Macpherson report, black people are not provided the same level of service provided to white citizens by the police force because of the stereotyping approach employed by the Metropolitan police. Black citizens are classified as people with riddled with crime and drugs, which was one of the reason why Stephen Lawrence case was not taken seriously at the beginning. Hence, it can be argued that institutional racism is has link with stereotyping, ignorance of people and social inequality or diversity. Research has shown that United Kingdom one of the diverse and multicultural country in the world, however many institution including the police are yet to accurately reflect the countrys diversity within their workforce, particularly at the managerial levels. Research conducted by Souhami (2012) on institutional racism and police reform: an empirical critique, Policing and Society revealed that white applicant into the police force are more likely to get a better chance of getting job and progress to the managerial level compared to people from the minority group. In addition, the newly published data from the Office for National Statistic indicated that 32 of Britains 45 territorial police forces employed a greater proportion of white applicants that other ethnicity that identify themselves as being from a BAME background (Ons, 2017). The findings were supported by the Londons Metropolitan Police chief, Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe who pointed that police chiefs in every part of the country has to be held accountable for failing to recruit people of their groups of the society that can positively reflect the communities they serve (Dodd, 2017) Dealing with institutional racism requires wider effort of the public and private sectors, schools, communities by educating people about the importance of diversity, and learning to understand and respect others people beliefs, culture or value. To mitigate against institutional racism in the police, the organisation has to embark on training their workforce on the importance of equality and diversity in the society. More also, the police force need to deploy a recruitment and selection process that will allow underrepresented groups to have a chance of getting employment and progression to the senior level of management in the police force. An independent body should also handle the complaints against the police for any investigation about racism or discrimination is transparency and credible in order to gain back the trust of the public. Officers that displayed violent behaviour against black people or other ethnicity should be prosecuted and face the consequences of their actions . In regard to the figures of ethnicity in the police force, the management should create progression route for minorities that apply to join the police for them to be part of the management, training and development to enhance their skills. Additionally, positive steps should be taken to drive recruitment of underrepresented groups in order to reflect the diversity of the nation. Continuous training should be provided on equality and diversity for new and current employees to promote equality and diversity in the police force. To reform and create a dynamic workforce, the police force can set up a cultural day whereby employees are encouraged to bring their traditional food, wear their attires and share their cultures and values with their peers. This will help police force employees to understand diversity in their own practice which can be demonstrated in the public. Does the UK have an underclass? Recently, there have been a lot of debates about social inequality and isolation in the UK politics. Social inequality is described the extent to which there are differences between groups in society (Amin and Sabermahani, 2017). It occurs in employment, life expectancy, access to education, business loans, mortality or morbidity rate. Some groups of the society are faced with the issues of struggle with social inequality in the sense that they do not have access to the same opportunity like others. The London riot in August 2011 was caused by social inequality because most the rioters came from poor and deprived areas with limited opportunity, lack of education and neighbourhood blighted with drugs (Liu and Bloom, 2006). The findings show that most of rioters came from neighbourhoods which were ethnically diverse or fractionalized. By going the definition of underclass by Lawrence M. Mead, in his book Beyond Entitlement, underclass as group of people who are poor and behaviourally d eficient, the rioters fit into this category (Mead, 1998). However, been poor does not necessarily mean an individual will have behaviour problems. The case of rioters as underclass was caused by social inequality and isolation by the government. In Britain, the media hep to promote the image of an underclass as someone on benefit that have cultivated the culture of poverty and laziness. Programmes like Benefits Britain: Life on The Dole, Benefits Street, Skint and Saints and Scroungers help also help to promote the idea of an underclass by providing real world examples and images (Donaldson, 2014) The word underclass is an ambiguous, impudent and subjective. According to Myrdal (1982), a Swedish social scientist refers to underclass as the class of unemployed, unemployables, and unemployed who are more and more hopelessly set apart from the nation at large and do not share in its life, its ambitions and its achievements. Mead (1998) defines underclass as a group that is poor and behaviourally deficient. He describes the underclass as dysfunctional. The underclass group are usually delineated and associated with people that have low aspirations, unemployed, lazy, have criminal record and poorly educated as well as coming from a family with instability and drug and alcohol addictions. However, the so call underclass group in Britain tend to have experience various forms of inequality and disadvantage in the labour market. They are very low wages, live in deprived areas with less opportunity and some end been addicted to drug because of low self-esteem. Murray (2008), in his book Losing Ground argued that welfare dependency has encouraged the break-up of the nuclear family household, and socialisation into a counter-culture which devalues work and encourages dependency and criminality. Lewis (2000) on the other hand, believes that culture of poverty is part of the coping strategies by which the poorest of the poor managed to survive. He argued that once an individual embrace this culture, it is difficult for them to break from it, hence making such individual to be an underclass. The scholar view culture of poverty as historically specific, emerging out of the problems of societal transition and the breakdown of the social order in an industrial/capitalist society. The culture of poverty theory states that living in conditions of pervasive poverty will lead to the development of a culture or subculture adapted to those conditions. This culture is characterized by pervasive feelings of helplessness, dependency, marginality, and powerlessness (Lewis, 2000). However, In Britain, the underclass group live in deprived areas of the country where there is less opportunity, fewer jobs, community is usually faced with drug and alcohol addiction as well as people with low self-esteem and peer pressure from there be part of the same group. Did they bring this problem up themselves? Wilson (2012) argued that Wilson argues that when communities experience widespread joblessness, they experience a social isolation that excludes them from the job network system. Wilson (2012) indicated that the main issue facing members of the underclass is joblessness reinforced by an increasing social isolation in an impoverished neighbourhood. They not only suffer from lower socioeconomic status, minimal education, and lack of opportunities, but they are further victimized by a lack of community safeguards and resources. The UK government help to create underclass group in the society because of social inequality, lack of opportunity and equality for certain group of people. They were seen as a problem group and given handout to keep satisfied without any real hope of integration into the main stream of the society. There are many factors to the problem, institutional racism where some people or individual typecast as not fit for purpose, stereotyping and lack of equality and diversity in every spectrum of the society. So yes, UK have an underclass group. References Atiba Goff, P. and Barsamian Kahn, K. (2012). Racial Bias in Policing: Why We Know Less Than We Should. Social Issues and Policy Review, 6(1), pp.177-210. Dawson, T. (2014). Collective Bargaining and the Gender Pay Gap in the Printing Industry. Gender, Work Organization, 21(5), pp.381-394. Dodd, V. (2017). Bernard Hogan-Howe to retire as Met police commissioner. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/sep/29/sir-bernard-hogan-howe-to-retire-as-met-police-commissioner [Accessed 8 Mar. 2017]. Drolet, M. and Mumford, K. (2011). The Gender Pay Gap for Private-Sector Employees in Canada and Britain. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 50(3), pp.529-553. Fawcettsociety.org.uk. (2017). Cite a Website Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: http://www.fawcettsociety.org.uk/policy-research/the-gender-pay-gap/ [Accessed 8 Mar. 2017]. Lewis, O. (2000). Five families; Mexican case studies in the culture of poverty. 1st ed. New York, NY: Basic Books. Mead, L. (1998). The new politics of poverty. 1st ed. New York, NY: Basic Books. Murray, C. (2008). Real education. 1st ed. New York: Crown Forum. Myrdal, G. (1982). Beyond the welfare state. 1st ed. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. Neyroud, P. (2014). Policing Facts and Policing Evidence: System 1 and System 2. Policing, 8(2), pp.93-95. Ons.gov.uk. (2017). Gender pay gap by age in the UK- Office for National Statistics. [online]Availableat:https://www.ons.gov.uk/aboutus/transparencyandgovernance/freedomofinformationfoi/genderpaygapbyageintheuk [Accessed 8 Mar. 2017]. Ray, L., Smith, D. and Wastell, L. (1999). The Macpherson Report: A View from Greater Manchester. Sociological Research Online, 4(4). Rubery, J. (2015). Closing the Gender Pay Gap in the EU. Intereconomics, 50(2), pp.62-63. Souhami, A. (2012). Institutional racism and police reform: an empirical critique. Policing and Society, 24(1), pp.1-21. Wilson, W. (2012). Truly Disadvantaged. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Pearl and the Spice of Life Really good salsa has lots of zesty vegetables and spices to make it good. But what if the spiciness of the salsa was taken away? It would just be tomato sauce. Pearl is the spice of The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne. If her character was not present, the book would have a completely different flavor. In his essay entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The Genius of The Scarlet Letter,Ã¢â¬ Anthony Trollope states, Ã¢â¬Å"Pearl is miraculous,-speaking, acting, thinking like an elf,-and is therefore, I think, a drawback rather than an aid. The desolation of the woman, too, would have been more perfect without the childÃ¢â¬ (Trollope 243). TrollopeÃ¢â¬â¢s point is well made, however the absence of Pearl would have made The Scarlet Letter an entirely different story. Without Pearl there would have been no proof of HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s adultery, and she might have become more depressed, even sinned more. However, if Pearl had been a more normal and obedient child, she would have been more well liked by readers. The most drastic change that would have been made in the book in the absence of Pearl would be that it would no longer have been called The Scarlet Letter. The reason for this being that without Pearl, there would have been no proof that Hester had committed adultery. Therefore, no one would have known and there would have been no punishment. Instead, Hester would have gone through the same guilt and internal battle as the minister, Reverend Dimmesdale. The reason that Dimmesdale is so tortured inside is because of the incredible feeling of guilt that he has because of having never taken blame or punishment for his sin. If Hester took no punishment, she would feel that same torture inside. But Pearl is present, so she is proof of HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s adultery. Hawthorne says it best when he states, Ã¢â¬Å"God, as a direct consequence of sin which man thus punished, had given her a lovely childÃ¢â¬ (82). HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s punishment was the consequence of having a child. Pearl is not only the proof of HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s adultery, she is also the thing that keeps Hester going. Hester may have fallen into a depression and eventually died, but Hester has to keep sewing, keep getting out of bed in the morning, and keep taking care of herself because she has someone else to take care of too. HesterÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings about Pearl are revealed when Hawthorne states, Ã¢â¬Å"But she named the infant Ã¢â¬ËPearl,Ã¢â¬â¢ as being of great price,-purchased with all she had,-her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s only treasure!Ã¢â¬ (82).
Friday, July 19, 2019
INTRODUCTION According to the 2006 edition of Microsoft Encarta published by Microsoft Corporation terrorism has existed for at least 2000 years and is likely to remain a fixture on political agendas, both locally and internationally for years to come. This practice provides unproblematic means by which the weak can meet head-on with much stronger opponents. It consequently has an enduring application to the alienated and the disenfranchised, the aggrieved and the rancorous, the powerless and the would-be powerful. This word itself brings trepidation and anyone who is dubbed a potential terrorist gives the impression of being hazardous. Terrorism, which is the unofficial or unauthorized use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims, has been chosen the theme for this portfolio. The topic of this writer will be extortion, which is a form of terrorism, how it affects the lives of Jamaican people and the parts the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"donsÃ¢â¬ play in this brutal act. This writer is impelled to magnify the main points surrounding this matter and to craft a healthier understanding surrounding the driving force behind peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s pathway of being an extortionist. This writer is determined to release the cages that are infrequently released from around the less discussed areas of this topic. It can be assured that after having a look at this portfolio the reader/readers will have a better understanding of extortion and how it affects the lives of the Jamaican people. I chose this topic because of my love for the ghetto and the pessimistic impact extortion has had on the lives of the ghetto people and also to expand my knowledge on the topic. As a prospective businessperson it give me the opportunity to amplify my knowledge about the possibility of extortion. This writer in exploring the selected topic experienced a lot of challenges: Time Ã¢â¬â Being a Seventh Day Adventist my Saturdays were off. Therefore the only access to books was in the school library. Due to the structure of my time table a lot of problems were faced in having adequate access to the library facilities at my school. Resources Ã¢â¬â A lot of effort was being placed on finding information on the topic. This was the most challenging part. I trust that this phase of my study will be very entertaining yet informative to all those who read.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Conceptualizing Involvement The plethora of consumer behavior and social psychological literature on involvement suggests considerable interest in this construct. There has not, however, been a common conceptual or methodological framework to its examination in either literature (Laaksonen, 1994; Jain and Srinivasen, 1990; Rothschild, 1984; Zaichkowsky, 1985; Traylor and Joseph, 1984). Three main perspectives of involvement are evident in extant literature; product-centered, subject-centered and response centered orientations (Finn, 1983). The product-centered perspective defines involvement as the perceived importance of the product to the consumer, i.e. whether the product is trivial and, therefore, unimportant, or serious and thus important. The subject-centered view maintains that consumers differ in terms of involvement-type variables. Three sub-groupings of subject-centered definitions have been postulated. They include interest/importance, relevancy (goals/consequences) and commitment (ego involvement). In this perspective, involvement has been defined as either the level of interest the consumer has in a product category or how important it is to her; the level a consumer is involved with a product in so far as it is related to some achievable end or concerns information that will directly impact on them; and, the level of commitment the consumer exhibits with respect to her position on an issue (Greenwald and Leavitt, 1984; Rothschild, 1984; Simon, 1967). The final alternative perspective views involvement as response-centered. This view holds that involvement is the active participation in information processing (Engel and Blackwell, 1982; Bettman, 1979). Despite the many and varied definitions of consumer involvement that have emerged in the literature, two common ideas emerge: first, involvement is a multi-dimensional construct (McQuarrie and Munson, 1986; Laurent and Kapferer, 1985), and, second, it is a motivational force which can help explain various behavioral outcomes, (for example, number and type of choice criteria, extensiveness of information search, length of decision-making process, variety seeking, and brand switching). The multi-dimensional aspect of involvement has been demonstrated by various researchers who suggest that the dimensions include: normative involvement - the importance of product class to values, emotions, and ... ...rable groups to take control of their reproductive health. To improve public health, social marketing focuses on changing prevailing attitudes and behaviors at all levels. In order to do this, people must believe that they are at risk. They must feel confident they have the power to change their own behavior, and new behavior must be compatible with prevailing cultural norms. In addition, health providers and retailers must often be convinced that the products and services being promoted are needed, safe and socially acceptable. Increased health impact. Social marketing is considered one of the most effective types of public health interventions because it offers measurable results. The ultimate goal of social marketing is social impact. In the area of public health, this translates into reduced risky or unhealthy behaviors that can in turn have an impact on the spread of diseases, chronic malnutrition or uncontrolled birth rates. Social marketing impact is often measured in terms of CYP (contraceptive years of protection), reduced prevalence of diseases such as sexually transmitted infections, malaria and food-borne diarrhea, or increased number of patients at network clinics.
How effective would an increase in government spending be at promoting economic growth? Economic growth is best defined as a long-term expansion of the productive potential of the economy. Sustained economic growth should lead higher real living standards and rising employment. Short term growth is measured by the annual % change in real GDP. Government spending is a way of increasing aggregate demand, and if successful can help boost economic growth. Government spending tends to be directed at infrastructure and maintenance, as this not only creates jobs but creates a valuable asset. (AD DIAGRAM) (AS DIAGRAM) DESCRIPTION) Some government spending is necessary for economic growth as if it were zero, enforcing contracts, protecting property and developing infrastructure would be extremely difficult. Another way of putting this is that some government spending is necessary for successfully enforcing the law. There are of course costs to increasing government spending, but there are als o many benefits. One cost is that for governments to spend money, they must first take it from someone. This is commonly achieved through taxation, which discourages productive behaviour. A balance must also be made when increasing tax.This is because an increase in tax means that businesses must either charge more or make smaller profits, so inflation will occur at an increased rate as a by product. Borrowing money is another option, but brings with it interest rates and this money must be paid back. Government spending also has the effect of displacing private-sector activity. Every pound sterling the government spends effectively means one less pound in the productive sector of the economy. There are some ways government spending can have a high rate of return, such as the maintenance of a well-functioning legal system.Unforunately governments tend not to use resources efficiently. Destructive choices are often made as a result of government spending, often through subsidising ec onomically undesirable programs. Examples of this welfare programs that encourage people not to work, as they prefer not to take the risk of being unable to find a better job, and would rather choose leisure over work. Flood insurance programs encourage construction on flood plains. Government programs likes this reduce economic growth and national output because they promote underutilisation and misallocation of national resources.One could argue that government programs that subsidise retirement and housing are bad for the economy as a person will feel that there is not need to set aside income if there are government programs that will finance these for them. Goverment spending also reduces competition. Those working in the private sector are constantly searching for ways to improve their products and reduce the cost in order to stand out from the rest, and this provides competition for others attempting to do the same, and this is a large contributor to innovation.However govern ment programs are often provided for free, or are subsidised to a certain extent, so reduce the need for competition. This does not mean that there are no positives to increased government spending. If government spending increases there can be many ancillary effects. For example, if a government were to invest in infrastructure jobs would be created in the construction of this building, and then this could be bought for (as an example) office space which would create more jobs as people would need to work in this office.With these people having jobs they would then inject more money themselves in to the economy through increased consumption. Maintenance is also necessary and increased spending on the matter can have positive effects, such as a rise in value of the area. If an area is left unmaintained the value will quickly depreciate and will negatively affect both those who work in the area, and those who live there. Low value areas often attract crime, which can be a threat to c ompanies and people.Increasing government spending on education that means that better quality education can be provided to those who can't afford private education and can only be a positive for the future. If more of us are educated well then the opportunity for a successful career increase, although it does not mean that one WILL have a successful career. However by better educating people we can increase the likelihood of long term economic growth for a country.This will be because better educated people will make better economic choices and have larger positive effects (better paid jobs mean more disposable income to flow back in to the economy, and more tax paid etc). Increases in government spending affects the aggregate demane, and these policies are known as Ã¢â¬Å"expansionary fiscal policyÃ¢â¬ . Expansionary fiscal policy is unlikely to affect the long term growth rate of an economy; but it likely to (in the short term) increase aggregate demand, leading to a higher out put. Unfortunately there is the side effect of increasing inflation growth rates as well.The Keynesian view states that the effectiveness of fiscal policy depends upon how close the economy is to full employment. Below a certain point, expansionary fiscal policy will increase output and reduce unemployment without increasing inflation, but as this continues it will eventually increase both output and inflation. At the point of full employment, the Keynesian view states that expasionary fiscal policy will result only in inflation. Many people would argue that the UK cannot afford to increase government spending as taxes are already very high for most people, and we simply can't afford to increase public debt.If we are to agree that increased government spending will not in the long term boost the economy, then one might argue that our efforts might be directed elsewhere. On the other hand, if we are to follow the Keynesian view we might agree that an increase in fiscal policy might b e what we need. Currently unemployment rates are very high in much of the western world, and this would be at the early stages of the model. By increasing fiscal policy we could increase output and reduce employment with little to no inflation. If money were to be invested by the government into our economy there is the possibility that it could go wrong.This could boil down either to poor handling of the money by the government, or by a negative reaction or both. If the money is spent where it is not needed, such as subsidising the low-end manufacturing industry we could see no increase in real output, as we are no longer able to compete with other parts of the world. However if the money was invested wisely, such as in high-end manufacturing and high-end services, we could see a real benefit. As was mentioned previously, there could be a lack of sufficient reaction to government spending to make it worthwhile.For example if infrastructure is built, but then nobody purchases it (e. g. it's in an undesirable area or companies can't afford the extra space/manpower). To conclude I think an increase in government spending could be successful at promoting economic growth, although this is likely to only be in the short term. However what is most important is that the money is spent wisely, where it is most needed and can be most beneficial. Too often governmental spending is inefficient (such as the subsidy of food production which led to a food surplus which was donated to Africa, meaning money was wasted).