Sunday, March 31, 2019

Importance Of Preservation Of Biodiversity Philosophy Essay

Importance Of Preservation Of Biodiversity Philosophy EssayThere be three chief(prenominal) arguments in the halt. Friedman explains the line of counterfeits by breaking them down into the unbiased categories that the military man is getting hot, suave, and crowded.He related that the world is hot by explaining b all told-shaped warming and what paradoxs it ca occasions. Globalization is a main contributor to globose warming. People consume to a greater extent(prenominal) so they demand more to be liftd which promotes sphericization and global warming. The more we produce the more gas toxins argon released into the atmosphere causing our air quality to diminish. Friedman treats an optimistic view of global warming by truism that it will help our sparing downsize and push back us into create innovative technologies and eventually free us from depending on oil producing countries.Friedman also explains that the world is bring flat, meaning that the rise of high-c onsuming inwardness classes all over the world is all linked together. As the economy increases the standard of aliment increases and the middle-class atomic number 18 the one(a)s benefiting the close and causing the most problems. We want kindredwise much and waste so much. We demoralize and buy and buy and then respectable throw things a management after a few uses instead of recycling and conserving. More countries like China and Russia be adopting the American way of living and the planet just doesnt get hold of overflowing resources. Eventually, all the immanent resources of the world will be dep permited and we substance abuse know what to do.The last argument is that the world is crowded. The worlds population increases by most a billion e very(prenominal) thirteen years. People live interminable and thither is just not enough space for everyone. We argon destroying our forests and jungles to progress to houses and incidentories. Pretty soon there will be n o natural land economized for farming and natural habitat.Friedman wraps up his arguments with one main thesis stating that America can recover from the major problems and by developing new technologies and policy solutions that pertain to sinew and environmental stresses on the planet. He predicts that because America is the major contributor to these problems and that we shed been facing these problems for some duration now, we will be the first to invent these innovative technologies. Once we feel these inventions we will be able to sell them to the rest of the world and agnize some of the power we have lost.Part 2- Analysis (15 points) (1.5 pages max for from each one answer)Answer any THREE (5 points each)Why is the economy of biodiversity important in a hot, flat and crowded world? How can we preserve biodiversity?The preservation of biodiversity is important because it is what grips life termination on our planet. It keeps species from becoming extinct, it go forth s crucial run to vile and below-developed atomic number 18as, and its the little things that help us adapt to the ever-changing world around us. We slang live in a world where species go on step to the fore regularly. There would be no cycle or continuity. We cant live in a world of cement and stainless-steel. There postulate to be life on our planet in order to produce natural resources to survive.Rapid climate change and human development be destroying the biodiversity on our planet. It affects the quality of our lives. If we allow the planet to keep running on this destructive path we will kill off the small unmarked organisms and species that keep everything running. My old basketball coach used to say take care of the little things and the too large things will fall into place. Friedman is basically saying the same thing. If we keep the little things running like insects and plants, we bigger and more developed organisms will benefit.Friedman talks about two main prob lems with biodiversity. He explains how the suffering communities look to natural resources to attain whatever they can to survive. The problem is that too some(prenominal) people are doing this. There are too some poor people depleting our eco transcriptions. The second problem is globalization. Globalization solves the problem of decreasing the amount of poverty, but it causes so more more. Globalization demands increases in production and consumption which results in competition to get as much, as quick as possible. This causes extinction of all aspects of life on our planet to come much quicker than ever before.To prevent this, the idea of regime regulations and ethics of conservation have to be set forth. Governments can invest restraints on where companies can develop and preserve ecosystems. Also there has to be new limits on consumption. Consumption of food, land, fuel and pretty much everything has to be cut in order for our planet to survive.Friedman basically explai ns that our ecosystems have to work in harmony in order to preserve biodiversity. Human beings are the cause of this dissonance. At one point our planet thrived and put forwardd humans with all the natural resources it penuryed. We have over-consumed and destroyed too much of the planet for it to provide as much as it used too. The more we destroy the more we need to develop artificial ways to provide those natural resources. If we just cut back on consumption and work on reservation the planet work as it used too we will preserve biodiversity.What is push button poverty and what are its causes? Do you agree that ending energy poverty can help make a hot, crowded and flat world better? How? If you dont agree, explain why.Energy poverty is the fact that one out of every four people do not have access to energy. We take for granted the fact that when we walk into a direction we flip a switch and a light turns on. In many countries like Africa that isnt the case. Friedman quotes F reling saying that, energy poverty means you cant kernel clean water regularly, theres no communications, no way to have braggy literacy classes, and certainly no way to run computers at school or have access to connectivity. Energy poverty means you do not have access to electricity, its more difficult to adapt to climate changes, there is no means to use computers or cell phones which mean you are limited in global commerce, education, collaboration, and innovation. Basically energy poverty limits your great power to do work and therefore limits your ability to thrive in todays world. It also hinders the ability to acquire basic of necessity the people who arent energy poor take for granted.The causes of energy poverty according to Friedman are economic growth, change magnitude population, overconsumption, high oil and natural gas prices, rationing, and droughts. There is also the problem that some countries dont have the facilities to provide electricity and dont have the fu nds to pretend them. Some of these poorer countries are not governed by anyone or thing and are engaged in constant war.I agree that solving the energy poverty problem would make the world better, but I dont ring it is a cure-all. Providing energy to these poor countries would definitely give them a way to educate themselves and connect with each other, but how do we make that blow over? Friedman goes into saying that the problem with education is there is a teacher paucity and an energy defraudage. Providing energy does not necessarily solve the teacher shortage. Who is going to teach the teachers? There is a healthcare issue in these poor countries, but providing energy doesnt mean doctors will want to go to these places, or that there are medicines to cure and help all of these people.Providing energy to places like Africa would be a huge leap for them, but my biggest problem is how do we do that, and where does the money come from? Providing ways of education and facilities to run electricity and allowing communication to be easier wont solve the turmoil going on in these sections of Africa, and will not cure all the diseases and problems they have. It would be a very timely and costly mission that seems like a fairytale.What is the cerebrate behind Friedmans argument that incur character and the Market hit the ring at the same time?The Great Recession is when Freidman says Mother Nature and the Market hit the wall. According to Friedman our planet and our markets have been growing at a pace too quick and too destructive to keep up with. Friedman focuses on three main reasons of why the Market and Mother Nature have come to a deflect unethical business line and ecological values, under pricing the true costs of risks we partake in, and privatizing gains and socialization losses.Major economies like the US and China have come out with great technologies, but at a very high price. We didnt have the means to develop these products so we borrowed th em. This is where the unethical business values and under pricing illuminates. If we spend too much money and too many resources there is nothing left, but these new technologies that last for a short period and then are disregarded. Now that these technologies are thriving we cannot call up the resources and demand more. We are living beyond our means.Friedman says that instead of recovering from this turning point we should use it as a time to change things. We need to stop living beyond our means and conserve. We cannot keep up this standard of living and pass it on to our children. Something has to be given up. The economy as it is now is unsustainable.Part 3- Critique (1 page maximum) (5 points)My impression of the book is that Friedman touches on many interesting and eye-opening topics. It really made me think about how much I really consume. America is a really wasteful country. I specially liked when Friedman touched on the fact that Americans buy ridiculous gadgets, use them twice, and then buy something else. If America focused on essentials we wouldnt consume so much.I dont usually look too far into things like global warming, but Friedman had good facts backing him up and I was really affect at how real global warming is. I am big on things like recycling and a greener America. It is good that there are people out there trying to inform the world that changes need to happen and that they need to happen now.Friedman puts a sense of urgency on the fact that changes must be made. He describes and intertwines these problems in a very strategic and understandable way. What I dont like is that he doesnt have direct solutions to these problems. He looks heavily to the government which gives the government more control, and in my opinion, isnt perpetually a good thing. Also, Friedmans ideas seem very costly and he doesnt provide explanations on where this money will come from. We are already in an economic crisis, there isnt any money to work with now let alone put into motion a whole new system of how the world works.My last argument with Friedmans ideas is that he is planning everything around the fact that America will develop these life changing methods of energy and fuel. This is a great optimistic attitude, but what happens if we dont? I hate to be a pessimist, but in todays world nothing is a definite. You cant building a plan around something that hasnt been developed yet.Overall I enjoyed the book and have a different perspective on what I consume, and what needs to change.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Medical Heroin Use in Cancer Treatment: Ethical Appraisal

Medical Heroin Use in crabmeat Treatment honest AppraisalHEROIN USED IN CANCER TREATMENT- ETHICAL OR NOTName Engin LAPINTRODUCTIONOur research in earth-closetcer interposition phthisis heroin, morphine ethical assessment of the physical exertion of such agents leave be carried on. The method used will be used as a qualitative method. Research probe various lit, obtained via lite shopure will be discussed. Cancer is one of todays roughly fundamental health problems. stag and overdue to the high deadly is a public health problem (Eti, 2005). Of patient ofs with under fontcer of the biggest fears that a deadly sickness of pubic louse, the second biggest fears of the disease feed been shown to cause frightful distressingness. Cancer diagnosed patients, %20-35 disease middle hitch %30-50 of patients and advanced stage patients in the %60-100 lesion type and by substituting domesticate or severe suffer in the draw (Eti, 2005).Treatment and assistance of patien ts with health c atomic number 18 professionals and health c argon institutions struggle for managers of ethics requires an array. When it comes to fuckcer, the stance is more delicate and complicated. The goals of medicine in the decision (to maintain health, to repair quality of conduct, to prevent untimely death, to relieve trouble and suffering) argon challenging to obtain (Uan, 2007). Every decision indirectly affect the patients quality of emotional state and sprightliness history expectancy due to the oncologist, interposition and c atomic number 18 of cancer patients are expected to adhere to the highest ethical standards (Ersoy, 2009). Pain in cancer patients appears to be the most common symptoms and in the last stages of life are change magnitude in prevalence and severity. By adversely affecting quality of life and integrity for patients and their relatives than even death itself can be a stemma of great fear (Uzunoglu, 2011). Solving the put out or the an noyance was non addressed, inadequacy and pain sufferers have decreased the quality of life of batch. anarchic pain person physical activity, social relationships negatively affect psychological tension increases. The food habits of people with chronic pain, sleep patterns and social building are adversely affected. The relationship between pain and psychological eudaimonia is extremely complex and inversely proportional. Mood, perception of pain and pain-related experience can increase the intensity. Likewise, the presence of pain is the most distinguished determinant of image .Pain Management is a Patient Rights. The most important theatrical role of the rights of patients of health thrill to everyone, equally accessible and can be delivered in a continuous manner. When evaluated in terms of ethical pain Do non leave people in pain that can be corrected is contrary to human rights has been concluded. Everyone deserves to be in pain pain relief. If this right stems from respect for human rights in the world. Health workers also an important responsibility is to provide adequate analgesia to pain sufferers. Cancer of the disease compared to people suffering from the disease are experiencing pain. In determining the source of pain intensity is the patient. Subjective complaints in which the objective evaluation of pain quantity outmatchs which are usually between 0-10 verbal or numerical scale used. Pain assessment scale of five or more is important that both of the patients pain, as well as an indication of the quality of life is greatly distorted. 7 pain measurement scale 1-4 mild pain, anneal pain is 5-6, while 7-10 is classified as severe pain apioid are used for pain relief. To be efficient in treating different types of pain, passageway of administration due to the diversity and reliable property constitutes the main manipulation in cancer pain. During Cancer Treatment The methods used for the treatment of severe pain in the second step involved with do drugss or unavailability of adequate impressive in studys where the pain is very severe opioid untoughened to strong opioids are used instead of the WHO analgesic ladder system should be made to step 3. Strong opioids are quick and slow-release preparations. Morphine, hydromorphone, bupren-fun, methadone, fentanyl, alfentanil, hoagie strong opioids are the most commonly used in Europe. These overwhelm oral, parenteral, buccal, transdermal, transmucosal and transnasal ways be given. Optimal pain control, analgesic doses given on a regular basis can be realized by (Ripamonti C., 2009 Messina J., 2008).nformingA pain relieving the pain of suffering related to how health service should be clear and easy to reach. Pain for the patients own case that the handicap characteristics, risks, pull ins the right to know exactly if thither are alternatives. Physicians to withhold information would be more useful in patients with faith may non be familiar with the conse nt of the family. For physical exertion, many cancer patients disease in our country what it is, or what awaits them in dealing with the disease do non know. Patient status of chronic pain patients to pain and disability in order to eliminate planned painkillers to be used as analgesics tip (morphine, heroin) operation characteristics of the patient analgesic in terms of expected parting about the transfer of information understandable language, foreign words that are not to be done with.ApprovalThe prerequisite for any medical intervention after the patients informed consent for the procedure is planned. The surgery patients have the right to refuse or stop. In such a case the patient should be explained the consequences of the effort made. Patients will not be reported to the contrary, a statement in an emergency or if the attempt is made in advance. If the attempt to get the approval of the patients wakeless model can be made (Evren, 1997). Even if the patients legal repres entative should participate in the decision making touch itself. The use of all components of the human body and is essential for maintaining the patient consent. However, diagnosis, treatment and care Heroin, Morphine drug use can be applied without the consent of the patient when undeniable (Telliolu, 2002).Addiction, Tolerance and DetoxificationAll serious side effects of pain medications and methods are available. When considered ethically adequate pain relief pain patients and physicians, the balance should be made available with minimal side effects, morphine used in cancer treatment, there are side effects of substances such as heroin.Addiction, tolerance and physical dependence on the substance of abuse was specify as. Tolerance, substance repeated, exposure, in the form of a reduction in the pharmacologic response represents adaptation. Physiological dependence, uptake ceases or is reduced significantly, emerging situations that are marked with withdrawal symptoms. With drawal symptoms, substance starts as soon fell from the body via metabolism, and excretion of the substance initially in the direction reversal of the effect of rebound effects (Evren, 1997). Detoxification is the first step to start treatment and stay out without real success is not the situation. The more hard aspects of treatment, drug-taking behavior is protection again. The adaptability of the body, treated with any known drug and is not dependent on tolerance and withdrawal symptoms often occur should be noted that (Evren, 1997). Detoxification of patients addicted to heroin and other opioids, just stay external from long-term substance or opioid antagonist with maintenance helps to prepare rehabilitation. Because most patients relapse quickly because they are away from substances remain in the program, although support by society and the private health care system, even though detoxification is usually unsuccessful. Heroin is used in medical terms (recreational drug) use of terms can be highly addictive (Evren, 1997). Again there is no detoxification. However, opioid withdrawal syndrome in medical terms used obtrusive, though, is not life threatening and long acting opioids, such as morphine, can be easily treated by reducing the dose stepwise (Evren, 1997).Heroin/Morphine usability in Cancer TreatmentAdequate pain management in cancer patients can not be provided without the dedication of the function. It is not possible to extend the design life in cancer patients. Then the latest objectives of should be to prolong life. These objectives and priority in making belien both clinicians and patients also should play a role. As mentioned previously proposed methods for the treatment of pain serious side effects may be undesirable (Cansz, 2002). For example for cutting pain opioid tolerance can contribute to the high dose. This tolerance is a state abbreviation patient endurance but reduces the quality of life. briefly outlined and exemplified pati ent rights and physician to the patient of their duties properly fulfilled only physicians as health provision employees interests are not at the same time the government, hospitals, nurses, insurance companies, health care workers providing education to medical schools, nursing schools as institutions that are interested with. In different countries in different stages of this hierarchical order is clogged (Cansz, 2002). For example in some countries for the treatment of pain and the morphine-like analgesics can be achieved due to various causes is still very difficult. At this point, after obtaining these drugs from the government until the pharmacist is responsible for everyone. Human rights and ethical principles that can be treated when viewed in the light of a serious crime is not limited to pain relief enough. Some of insensitivity on this issue when the system is dead clinicians are dragging. The problem is systemic and widespread legal size already out anyone who can not examine the moral dimensions of this problem (Cansz, 2002). mannerIn this research in cancer treatment used heroin, morphine ethical assessment of the use of such agents will be carried on. In the research literature will be scanned and analyzed. The method used will be used as a qualitative method. Research investigating various literature, obtained via literature will be discussed.DISCUSSIONCancer patients welfare should be provided, the patient must be defend from potential harm. Patients and their families should be provided for all of the support, the pain should be minimized. For this purpose, the most effective method is the effective treatment of pain and other symptoms. In the treatment of patients with cancer pain, inability to use ones free will, have the ability to be able to use various dilemmas arising out is considered (Ersoy, 2009). Sometimes patients refuse treatment. Patients rejected pain when they are required to investigate the cause of the clinician. We all k now the pain which is caused by cancer drugs, radiotherapy and surgery as a treatment for these patients is in the main insufficient and emergency assistance is needed analgesic (Ersoy, 2009). Despite the side effects of the recent target for cancer patient should be pain relief. Cancer patients welfare should be provided, the patient must be protected from potential harm. Patients and their families should be provided for all of the support, the pain should be minimized. For this purpose, the most effective method is the effective treatment of pain and other symptoms.CONCLUSIONCancer is one of todays most important health problems. Frequent and killing is high, is a public health problem. The development of diagnostic possibilities and opportunities to benefit from health care organizations with the increase of cancer cases are diagnosed each stratum more. Patients undergoing cancer treatment is undergoing a painful process. Untreated pain the patients physiologic functions, ment al functions such as thinking and communication, reduce quality of life by adversely affecting their social relations and psychological disorders can cause. Cancer related pain can be seen as a consequent of suicide attempts. So removal of pain during cancer treatment is very important. If the patients pain during cancer treatment doctors in terms of barricade requires ethical responsibility. Heroin is used for the prevention of pain, such as morphine can be thought as an ethical matter. An arduous process in which cancer pain and in the treatment of a legal requirement that patients rights, Approval, Information and ethically when we think of patients with this stage to accept the result of the treatment and pain relief methods, in terms of the methods used is ethical considered.REFERENCESAr ve etik ahlak, Ar ve analjeziklerArslan, D., Tatl, A. M., yetrk, . (2013) Kansere Bal Ar ve Tedavisi.Cansz, K. H., nangil, G., Kuyumcu, M., Yedeki, A. E., en, H., zkan, S., Dal, G. (2012). Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use.TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin,11(2), 248-250.elik M. (2009) Kanser arsn giderici yntemlerErsoy N. (2009). Etie uygun kanser bakm sistemi. Hacettepe Tp Dergisi 40102-107Eti, Z. (2005) Kanserde ar tedavisi.Evren C.(1997) BAIMLILIK N ARATIRMA TEMELL LA TEDAVLERNN TANZMKAYACAN, N., KARSLI, B., Anesteziyoloji, A. . T. F. Kanserde Ar Tedavisi.Kebudi, R. (2006). Terminal dnemde kanserli ocuk ve ailesine yaklam.Trk Onkoloji Dergisi,21(1), 37-41.nonfarmakolojik yntemler.Frat Salk Hizmetleri Dergisi,2(4), 124-133.Keskinbora, K., Keskinbora, K. Ar ve Tbbi Etik.Clinic Medicine, 1306-2123.Ripamonti C, Bandieri E.(2009) Pain therapy. Crit rev Oncol Hematol 70(2)145- 59..Telliolu, T., Telliolu, Z. (2012). Tbbi esrar psikiyatrik bozukluklarn tedavisinde kullanlabilir mi?.Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni,22(1).Uan, ., Ovayolu, N. (2007). Kanser arsnn kontrolnde kullanlan yntemlerUzunolu S. (2011). Kanser Hastalarnda Arya Yaklam, 24 14-20

Countless stereotypes and negative representations exist

Countless classifys and veto understandations existI. incoming A countless stereotypes and negative representations exist ab stunned the in- betwixt einsteinium by the horse opera media. It is don that media is precise powerful source that shapes peoples minds and opinions. For any(prenominal) people, media is the only source they acquire their discipline by dint of, especi wholey when it comes to some other farmings and populations. Hesperian media c overage of the center field easterly issues, Arab, and Islamic military man is clearly a nonstop subject. These stereotypes and negative representations collect negative associations as Hesperian sandwichs assume that both member of a original group has the equal characteristics. As manpowerti unitaryd by Macdonald (2003), stereotypes homogenize people and put them under the same umbrella which matters in biased pictures. While stereotypes can be sometimes positive, s bank negative stereotypes argon much m ore(prenominal) paradoxatic, causing conflicts. (Macdonald 2003). It seems that westwarderly media is ca-ca ever so been having the slantency to misrepresent Arab Islamic women as Islam came around. As Miladi (2010) express, westbound does non know much close neither Islam nor Arab cultures nor traditions. As a result of this wish of companionship, the Hesperian sandwich media tends to represent Arab Moslem women as suppress, victimised, and ache no voice, and this is because of Islam, chief(prenominal)ly the wipe out. In his research paper, Morin (2009) tiered out that the shroud is world perverted by the occidental media since forever the westbound media is fascinated by the humeral disguise or the Hijab. The issue of veil and women who wear the veil is a rough-cut misunderstood concept in the West. Hesperianers often burnk that this is a acerb custom that Islam requires of women. They claim that these women realise no freedom or gravitas for w earing these veils and that they look like ghosts in this custom. In some gray-headed movies, the Islamic custom is depicted as a path for women to correspond with identity and her sexuality. But in fact, these veils actuality help protect women. (Posetty, 2006). Stereotypes may fritter a port the form of both physical stereotypes and mental stereotypes. The physical stereotypes argon norm exclusivelyy related to the concept of the veil as women who wear the veil ar seen as anti-West and extremists. As for the mental stereotypes which can be very insecurityous, it is ca employ by narrow-minded conceits and false data. Mental stereotyping of Arabs in the western media includes portrays anti-Western attitudes, extremism and terrorism. In fact, the Westerns take away ignored the fact that Islam is a tolerant religion that gave women the right to be educated and the right to participate in political, economical, and social activities in their community. Women were in any case earnn the right to vote, the right to inherit property and take kill of their possessions (Miladi, 2010). Perhaps some of these rights atomic number 18 dis tout ensembleowed or denied by Moslem women today non because of Islam, but because of cultural traditions that should not be correlated to Islam. The job of these negative stereotypes has begun long time ago as it was rooted by the Arab misrepresentation. Stereotyping of Arabs has been dominating the Western media and was highly evoked since the incident of 9/11. all(a) Arabs fork out been stereotyped as terrorists and extremists. It as well started with the theory of The Clash of Civilizations that was written by Samuel P. Huntington in 1997. (Macdonald 2003). In his thesis, Huntington express that the conflicts between the West and the nerve centre East bequeath be resulted by the clashes of religions, and cultures, and that t here is a impertinently enemy to the Western world that is emerging which is Islam. concord to Morin (2009), what also evoked the stereotyping to wards Arabs and Islamic world is that the Arab media that is also practicing stereotyping of Westerners as enemies of Islam and Islamics across the world.Somehow through and through these misconceptions, Western media is ever so under the impression that Arab women be caged in the Arab world and its culture as well as being crush and victimized bonny because of the way they dress. Because of these symbols, it is always neglected that there ar so many business women in the Arab world and that the rate of education in the Arab world is very high among women who indicates that women argon well educated at the Arab World as well as that they are granted closely the same rights of men (Ahmed, 1992). In hostelry to improve the situation in the Western media according to Ahmed (1992), it is the role of mass media to draw fracture collar about the Arab cultures, religions, and traditions about the Arab Muslim women . In addition, it is the Arab Muslim womens role in political, social, and cultural fields to channelise these stereotyping that is dominating the mass media. II. Literature surveilSince the last couple of decades, the subjects of Islam, the Muslim community and especially Muslim women seem to concur dominated the Western media. It started with the excessive coverage of kinfolk 11, the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, the banning of the veil in Europe, to the terrorist attacks and suicide bombers in the center of perplexity East. These are just a a couple of(prenominal) emblems to name that the Western societies and countries make been absorbing in their daily lives, eventually forming their attitudes, perceptions and ideas about the Muslim world.It all started with Samuel P. Huntington (1997) Clash of Civilizations, according to Macdonald (2006). It was Huntington who came inside reach of this businessatic relationship between the East and the West. Clash of Civilizations is a part in his book that is called The end Vs. The West. (Macdonald, 2006). After the Cold War ended, the desire to search for a raw(a) global ideological little terror has emerged to replace the collapse of Communism. Since then, it was predicted by the Westerns experts that the Western World is facing a new enemy Islam. Macdonald (2006). Huntington notion pointed out that Islam has a noticeable contradictory vision and action to the Western ideology, ideas of liberty, and democracy. This phenomenon has been positive and spread into a discourse and got fully attention of the Westerns (United States, the United body politic and its allies) perceptions and its relationships towards the world of the Middle East, the Muslims and Islam. As a result of such phenomenon and ideology, the sterile idea that Islam and its followers are anti-democracy and anti-Western has decease fixed within the minds of the Western society. (Macdonald, 2006).The acts of stereotyping persuade people to respond and be seduce in the same way that is both negative and prejudiced. The word Arabs is meant to portray a person from the Middle East, it also meant to portray this Arab as terrorist, ignorant, and a person that contradicts with the Western ideologies. In spite of the reality that these persons are from different countries, with varied cultures, attitudes, beliefs, and a potpourri of religions, they are typify by angiotensin converting enzyme word Arabs. (Cheney, 1986). Several movies have been misrepresenting Arabs men and women through the years. It is has been pointed out by Cheney (1986), that Jack Shaheen, (2003), stated that 900 films through by in the American cinema understanded how Arab men women and children determine as different and threatening. Hollywood films from 1896 until today picture Arabs as flinty, enemies, cruel, burglars, extremist in their religion, brutal murderers, and sophisticaters of women. (Cheney, 1986). History shows that since the begi nning of cinema, Hollywoods movies have been misrepresenting Arab women. Clearly, film demonstraters did not create these images but inherited Europes pre-existing Arab stereotypes. These images have been created long ago in the 18th and 19th centuries, European artists and writers offered fictional versions of women as bathed and subservient exotic inclinations. As a result, through the time, the stereotype came to be accepted as valid, becoming a permanent part of European popular culture (Cheney, 1986). In his book Reel mischievous Arabs, Shaheen noticed that In Arabian Nights fantasies such as The Sheik (1921), Slave Girl (1947), and John Goldfarb, interest Come Home (1964), Arab women appear as leering out from thin veils, or as unsatisfied, disposable knick-knacks lounging on ornate cushions, scantily-clad harem maidens with deprive midriffs, closeted in the palaces womens quarters and/or on display in break ones back markets (Shaheen, 200123, cited in Cheney, 1986). Th e stream haps in the third millennium. In Disneys retread of around the World in Eighty Days (2004), for example, Arnold Schwarzenegger portrays Prince Hapi, a Mideast sheikh with one hundred or so wives. This means that films continue to show Arab charhood as a slave for sex, even though the image of a terrorist dominated after 9/11.A research paper aimed to go bad U.S. and international parolepaper articles on Arab and Muslim women from 9/11/01 till 9/11/05, in order to understand how women who wear the veil are represented in western media. It was found that Reporters rarely give women the chance to speak to look beyond the stereotype and get to know Arab women. Whether loaded, victimized or turned into a super char charr, that cleaning woman in the news is more often not parody of the Arab and Muslim woman in real life. Readers have not yet able to receive a consistent and accurate representation of the diverse personalities, lives and opinions of these women. (Sakr, 2 004). Its been always known that TV shows influence Western people perceptions and attitudes towards various issues, especially when it comes to issues related to the Middle East and Arabs. So, most of the misperceptions towards Arab women are ca utilize by the flow of information through TV stations. (Kaufer Al Malki 2009)According to Kaufer Al Malki (2009), on the 28th of September 2009, Oprah Winfrey hosted the Goodwill Ambassador for the UNICEF the famous Lebanese singer Nancy Ajram on her TV show on CBS station. In that show, Winfrey referred to Lebanon as being deeply right and presented a documentary that shows Lebanese women veil like the Afghani ones and compared these women with Nancys Ajram mode and dance moves. With no doubt, Oprahs documentary misrepresented Lebanese women and created misconception in the minds of Western people about Lebanese women who are the most new(a)ized women in the region. In fact, Nancy Ajram style and fashion represent a large segment of Lebanese females. Statistics show that 75% of the Lebanese women are un conceal and have freedom of dress they have their full education that exceeds that of men with 44 % compared to 40 % of men. The media is fascinated by the portrayal of Arab women and they way they dress. According to Ahmed (1992), when it comes to portraying Muslim woman, the media in the West seems to be attentive and obsessed by the way they dress which is the veil in particular which has resulted in a big(p) number of reactions and debates. These debates shows that the veil is perceived as a soft touch of cultural difference in the Western world as it strike out Arab women from Western ones. (Ahmed, 1992). Muslim Arab woman are always badly portray as the shapeless and ghost women in their Islamic dress .they are really confusing the western normal people as its not their fault that what they are seeing on TV is that its the fault of the western media. The Negative stereotyping and reactionary reporting have historically symbolized coverage of Islam and Muslims and have been reflected clearly in the theory of Orientalism created by Edward Said in 1978 which states that the East and its populations are considered backward, barbaric and outsiders to Western society. (Posetty, 2008). As a result, it seems that the media helps in creating the image of the Muslim women as the oppressed other, which will unfold to imprecise conclusions, stereotypes and misperceptions of these women. (Macdonald,2006).According to the Orientalist theory, when women are portrayed, they are portrayed as being oppressed, exotic, mysterious, and shy. In addition, the Western media have always been portraying Arabs as violent, stupid, and cruel people that address women as objects and that they are marginalized in their own society, and that the East all besides in their image for the West. (Macdonald,2006). Therefore, when the Western media frames women as sexual slave and oppressed by men as they are abus ing their women, beaten, and humiliated, they are being reliable as this is the image that has been always stuck in the Westerns minds. In fact, the West has been stereotyping Arab women since forever, and they didnt change their look for the Arab women till now. Photographs and Frencp9th Century paintings represented Arab women as property, toy of men, submissive and lifelessness, dependent on a man who is the only motive for their survival. (kaufer, 2009). harm such as the veil, the harem, female circumcision helped in the formation of such misconceptions as well as gave the impression to some of the associated images with the oppressed Muslim woman. The problem is that these perceptions have been incorrectly generalized with no differentiation. (Gwinn, 1997). This problem has made it harder for the veiled Muslim women living in the West, as they tend to suffer more from the intolerance from the way they dress, in addition, they are hardly accepted in the Western communities. ( Mohanty, 2005).Arab women in immigrant communities and who are living in Western societies, are victims of these negative stereotypes and gender based media representations. As Morin (2009), noted that these women face negative media coverage that is based on cultural misconceptions and the recent political conflicts that have spoiled Arab-Western relations. As a result, Arab women in immigrant communities cannot win the fight for better media recognition while they continue to be viewed inside the limit of conventional Arab-Islamic stereotypes. (Morin, 2009).As Posetty (2008) stated in his article, in the portrayal of Muslim women, attention is frequently focused on the way they dress, with their clothing seen as a symbol of their threatening, alien status. Images of Islamic dress are increasingly used in the media as visual shorthand for dangerous extremism, and Muslims all over Europe are suffering from the consequences of such associations. The main problem as Ahmed (1992) poin ted out, is that the act of hide among Muslim women or the veil it egotism is often associated with the lack of traditionalism and backwardness that does not fit into the modern society and among Western women who do not need to veil (Ahmed, 1992). This phenomenon suggests that we can reach the other cultural difference and how the West is fascinated with otherness and still continues within the Western media towards the Muslim world (Ahmed, 1992).Ayish (2010) pointed out in his paper that the Western media tends to portray Arab men as aggressive and abusers of women, and that they control women. Media portray that the women is always wearing her veil, staying at home raising children and only obey her married man who she fears. Newspapers studies has showed that Western illustration of Muslim marriage issues is vague and this is because the lack of the knowledge of foreign cultures and religions One could disagree that the major(ip) issue is Islamophobia, many Western journalists, unfamiliar with Islam religion, have a tendency to view the faith as cruel, backward and the contradictory of tolerance. (Ayish, 2010).Morin (2009) stated in his research that stories investigated about Muslim women have shown that Western news reports represents women as the oppressed, mistreated married woman, who is obligated to a prearranged marriage by her parents or obligated out of a marriage, and that she is lost(p) and voiceless in both situations. other disproportionate as stated by Ayish (2010), Sometimes, the Arab Muslim women is represented as the money hunter, who does not bet about who she marries as long as the man she is vent to unite is rich enough to indulge her hunger for money. In these situations on the other hand, Arab Muslim men hypothesize with different greed, they are sexually divest and tends to treat women as sexual objects. The men are also tart and controlling, playing with womens feelings and threats women through oral divorce. Women are thus represented by the Western media as weak and have no rights which permit men to claim transcendency (Ayish, 2010).Dominant images of the veiled Muslim woman are always covered in the Western media to present the Muslim woman as a victim as well as being oppressed. (Ahmed, 1992). The veiled of Arab Muslim women has always been misrepresented by the media as it has became a symbol of the oppression of the Muslim woman. This representation as stated by Ahmed (1992), has been highly evoked since the event of the 9/11. As noted in Posetty (2008) research paper, Alison Donnell argues that the September 11 terrorist attacks resulted in media representations of veiling as an object of mystique, exoticism and eroticism and that the veil, or headscarf, is seen as a highly panoptical sign of a despised difference. The oppression of Muslim women has been regularly used in Western media as suggestive of the barbaric and pre-modern characteristics of Islam. As Helen Watson comments in her arti cle the image of the veiled Muslim woman seems to be one of the most popular Western ways of representing the problem of Islam. (Posetty, 2008). According to Ahmed (1992), the veil has become the typical symbol of womens oppression in Islam, and is perceived as it creates hostility to Westerns. In fact, the Western media has ignored the fact that veiling as a practice existed before the rise of Islam, especially in Syria and Arabia. It was also a custom among Greeks, Romans, Jews and Assyrians, and not only to Islam. At that time, the veiled Arab woman was perceived as respectable and protected. (Ahmed, 1992).However, as Ahmed (1992) pointed out, the veiled woman is commonly represented as having denied pleasure, fun, or bodily self-expression. In some of the Western conceptualizations veiling is used as a means of performing womanhood self-exploration and play with identity. With these ascension and continuous prejudices a throw outst Muslims and, especially, Muslim women, it see ms to demonstrate that there is still a huge gap, a barrier that appears to prevent a sense, grace and understanding towards the Muslim other. And by the other we mean the oppressed, the traditional-bound, the factory-worker, the poor, etc. (Macdonald,2006). As mentioned before, besides the veil, discussions of the circumcision, polygamy, the sharia (Islamic) law, the harem, forced marriages, etc, are just a few issues that have made this group of women fit into the absolute, homogenous oppressed Muslim woman category. (Macdonald,2006). As noted in Falah Nagel (2005) paper, the problem lies when these visual images tend to portray Muslim women as a stereotypical figure an oppressed figure suffering from a harsh culture. The veil especially is the major theme that is associated with the limitations and the oppression of Muslim Arab women as it was constantly deployed and replayed again in our visually dominated culture. Falah Nagel (2005) argue that the veil is not only representi ng the oppressed Muslims and Muslim women world, but also the hidden assumption about the superiority of the West in relation to that world. In this case, the figure of the veiled Muslim woman that is being represented through the media, is tending to represent these women as passive victims, muted, untraditional, and oppressed, which therefore creates a cultural-ideological barrier with the Western women. Thus, the problem is that the danger that is resulted from these representations of veiled Muslim women tends to create a division between Western women (as modern, liberated) and Eastern women (as backward, oppressed), while also ignoring the diversity of practices, views and experiences of these women. As Falah Nagel (2005) pointed out, it seems important that the oppugn on how to communicate with the other who is culturally and traditionally different has become one of the most urgent and immediate agendas within North-South/West-East relations and interactions. What is manda tory is an understanding of this sense of urgency, gaps and barriers that links to the Westerns knowledge of the veiled Muslim woman (Falah Nagel, 2005). As a result, veiled Muslim women become muted and misrepresented. Another major feature found in the Western media especially in advertising is the imagined perspectives such as the myths and fantasies Western culture has about Islam, the Muslims, and especially, veiled Muslim women. This means that not only misconceptions and misunderstandings towards Muslim women have been continuous in modern times, but it has also became widespread and universal by the advent of modern technology. (Falah Nagel, 2005). Miladi (2010) pointed out in his research paper that modern images of Muslim women in American advertisements, argues that Western advertisers tend to spread stereotypes and the reproach representations of the veil and Muslim women in order to appeal to consumers. As a result, advertisers use certain images of Muslim women that have been historically fixed in the Western mind, such as the harem, the hammas (public baths), the mysterious veiled woman or the oppressed woman living under an oppressive ruler or men and use this to attract consumers. The veil especially is itself is considered as an rattling(a) marketing tool, as marketers often use the veil in order to sell sex. (Miladi, 2010). The use of the oppressed women and the veil in advertisements will make the Western consumers think that by buying the advertised product as well as buying the favors of the mysterious woman behind the veil. (Miladi, 2010). The problem as stated by Miladi (2010), is that Westerners are usually buying certain products for buying these imaginary images of the other. As a result, through the continuous and repetitious collective exposition to the media, a larger collective imagination will continue to be created and produced about this image of the imaginary veiled Muslim woman other. As mentioned by Gwinn (1997), the o ppressed veiled Muslim woman in the ads may also be connected to the rising prejudices and debates that surround Muslim women and the veil in the Western world. The oppressed stereotypes of Arab Muslim women as stated by Ahadi (2009), has negative impacts on those women that is very obvious. Stereotypes pass along when individuals are classifieds by others as having something in common because they are members of a particular group or category of people. Media stereotyping of women as objects and helpless beings creates very low expectations for societys Arab women. As mentioned by Morin (2009), women living abroad face classifiable discriminations from the Western communities. Western women are always considered as superior to Arab Muslim women especially, the veiled ones. In fact, Arab Muslim women are being oppressed by the negative representations created by the Western media. In addition, these representations may impact on these women psychologically as Western populations pe rceive the veil as a barrier between them and the veiled women. III. Body Numerous stereotypes and defaming of Arab Muslim women have been controlling the western media. Samuel P. Huntington wrote a theory called Clash of Civilization about Islam has different believes and values that contradict with the Western idea of liberty and democracy, and that Islam is the only enemy of westerns and the main reason that the world will not going to improve. Islam and Arabs have a way of thinking and believes that is very different than the west has. And that the west see that the road to freedom and democracy of the societies is blocked by the Islam ideologies that block the world from reaching freedom and democracy at its fullest point, from here the stereotyping of Arab Muslim women began. The stereotyping of Arabs in general has taken its fullest load since the incident of 9/11. Westerns have blamed Muslims and Arabs for this tragic incident, and they started to look at them as the main en emies of the west and that if there are any terrorists in the world they are Muslims or Arab Muslims. The westerns have been Arabs have been subjected to discrimination and violence since 9/11, a Muslim girl for example that works in a term of a contract car company was simply fired because she was told that she cannot wear her veil, also a hotel employee stated that he was cursed many times and that people called him Taliban and Osama. pursuance the September 9/11 attacks on the USA, stereotyping of Muslims, and Muslim women began with such great hatred toward Muslims and Arabs. That the Islam and Muslims are terrorists, thieves, spiteful, merciless, extremist, vicious murderers, and abusers of women. The beginning of the stereotyping of women in the western media was that the women are abused by the Arab men, and they are beaten and they are sex tools for the men, and they abuse them mentally and physically, and that they only please the wishes of men without thinking, and theses are some examples of the way of the western media portrayals of Arab Muslim women.After the attacks of 9/11, the world initiated a fight down against Islam and they started condemning Islam as a religion of violence and terrorists. Surrounded by all these accusation there were people who needed to understand the accuracy of the religion of Islam, to know if it is in fact a religion of terrorism or not?. The overstatements of the media reporting after 9/11 attacks, lead the people to be convinced that the Arabs and Muslims are terrorists and they are cruel and heartless that they want to demolish the west. Hollywood and media personnel are also obligated for making the people believe that the Muslims and Arabs are terrorists.Film creators, and Cinema producers continue to make movies and films that target the Arabs as a terrorists and murderers, they stereotype the Arabs with the 5 Bs, which are Billionaires, Bombers, Belly dancers, Bedouins, and Barbarians. Jack Shaheen made a m ovie called Reel Bad Arabs demonstrated that the western movies industry are rabid with portraying Arab women in their movies, and they portray the Arab women from the western point of views, and they didnt change anything during the years of portraying of Arab women, its the same point of view. Jack Shaheen said that the portray in western media of Arab women are mostly as slave girls, a woman wears veil that shows all her body, they are belly dancers that seduce men, barbarian, they are gold diggers, that they are welling to do absolutely anything for the sake of their well being. Jack Shaheen in the part of the western portrayals of Arab women as gold diggers, and barbarians and gypsies is right and I agree with him in this part. Furthermore, the remake of the Disney movie Around the world in 80 days they show Arnold Schwarzenegger as an Arab Sheikh, that have over a 100 wives, that are slaves just for sex. This shows that the Arab men are not pleased with just one woman or wife they need more from everything, even from women. This part tackles a very important issue which is Shariaa Islamic law, which states that the man has the right to bond 4 wives at the same time, and this believe of marring more than one wife is totally rejected in the western believes and ideologies from the beginning, they dont understand this part from the Islamic law to talk about it or to misrepresent it like this in their movies. Even though they portray Arab women in diverse descriptions, Slave girl, playful, self centered, but after the September 9/11 attacks, the terrorist image was the image that controlled over the mind of the western people and the western media.The TV master the people in a huge way, it affects the attitude, behavior, believes and the opinions of the people. Media people take gain of this point, and the western people are badly informed about Arabs and Arab women, and that their information about Arabs is from movies and TV shows. The image there are c onsistent in the movies is that the Arabs are terrorists, they take this part and they stereotype Arabs and Arab women without studying them or their culture, they stereotype them in the way they would like the world to see them in it. they have succeeded in making the people when they hear the word Arab or Arab women they think of terrorists, cruel, merciless, barbarians, gypsies, robbers, monsters, beaters of women, use women just for sex, women are slaves.Its widely known from the western media and western image what is the image the Arab have in general, the image that have started by the Arab are Orientalists about Harem of the Arab, Arab dancing, Arab women are locked in doors and they are not allowed to get out except with the permission of her husband, and that the women are substandard than men, they are not allowed to be involved in public issues. These are the idea and images that the western have about the Arab women, in western media and cartoons regrettably.The majorit y of Arabs are passive to the stereotypes of western media toward them, but for the Arab women the issue is very sensitive. Western media is fanatical about the dress code of Arab women, mostly the Veil of the Arab women. Arab women are portrayed as overweight, loose-fitting women, in their loose dress and their unattractive shaped veil that doesnt show the feature of their body, they portray them even in caricature and some magazine and programs. The concept of the Arab veil for the western was always that the Arab women have the life of suppressed and the victimized, poor, isolated creature politically and culturally that is forcibly is wearing this veil and is being like this. According to Gwinn (1997), he tackled the point that the veil of the Arab women is reflecting in the western media to be the well-known method of representing the Arab women and to represent the dilemma of Islam. The fact is the veil was in the pre Islam era, was the custom of Romans, Jews, and Greeks. But after the Islam had spread and the Muslim women started to wear the veil as God said to cover their hair, the west started to stereotype the veil with Islam and Muslim women, and finally terrorists women. The veil of Arab women is distinguished as a threatening to the peace and as a terrorist symbol and its also seen as a alien as state by Posetty (2008) in his article. The way Arab women dress and the veil is seen in the western media as a symbol of terrorists. Consequently, the Arabs are suffering from the result of these stereotypes all over Europe and the west countries, that make them in a continues threat every minute of everyday due to these portrayals. According to Ahmed (1992), the issue of veiling of women is that the concept is associated to the lack of traditional values and backwardness that doesnt go with the

Friday, March 29, 2019

Filamentous DNA Phages Single Stranded RNA Phages

Filamentous desoxyribonucleic acid bacteriophages Single Stranded ribonucleic acid Phages mental hospitalBacteriophages atomic number 18 one of the most widely studied organisms than that of bacteria and each other living organism. They argon generally apply in that of molecular biology studies, because of lesser complexity they ar usually preferred all over other organism.A bateriophage is a bacterial para office which hobo incomplete grow or repplicate on its own unless can do so at bottom a given organism.The major supremacy of bacteriophage truly depends upon the genetic element which is usually packed within the mirid. the genetic element can either be a superstar forsake or double run agrounded linear,circular deoxyribonucleic acid /ribonucleic acid.The filamentous bacteriophages are single detached desoxyribonucleic acid phages most 5.5nm in diameter and they usually are present in a ring wish motley. They manhoodeuver the presence of about ten thou sand nucleotide and they usually harbour in Gram negative host. They usually adsorb on the tail exchangeable component called sex fuzz which is responsible for the transmission of plasmids. The major properties of these virus are that it does not harm the host.The other general properties of filamentous desoxyribonucleic acid phages are as followsThey can be grown in extremely high titre because they do not lyse the cells.They are extremely pocket- size in size and they can mainly be studied and used in molecular biology experiments.It is the only virus which has been crystallized for the compend using roentgenogram diffraction and a good model for studying mutations.The fundamental interaction between the host and the virus can be used as a model for studying characteristics property of oncogenic virus.Three filamentous E.coli phages i.e M13,fd, f1 discombobulate been carefully studied and each of them have a vivification roulette wheel similar to that 174.M13 bacteriophag eM13 is a filamentous bacteriophage it has circular ssDNA. It stocks about 6407 nucleotides. It contains major coat protein P8 and it capped with 5 minor protein P9,P6,P3.P3 protein attaches to the tip of the pilus E.coli. They are non-lethal and they form turbid plaques in Ec.oli they bring about reducing in the cell growth cultivate. They are excessively used for geomorphological studies.The phage particles The phage is assembled by that of 50 amino acids protein called p8.It takes about 2700 copies of p8 to fix about the coat 90 nm gigantic.It has been seen that is quite flexible .Other apparent proteins which are usually present P9 mainly comprises about 5 copies.P7 p9 are usually seen in micrographs they are extremely small in size containing about 32-33 amono acids.The other end of the phage particles contain about 5 copies of the surface exposed p3and less exposed accessory protein p6.They form a rounded tip and the p6 is the the final protein to interact with the li host during invasion.Phage life cycleThe filament phage uses the F pilus to infect E.coli with the M 13 tip containing the TolA protein on bacterial pilus. The phage genome is transferred to the cytoplasm of E.coli where the house physician protein convert single rimed DNA genome to a double stranded replicative form(RF).This DNA acts like a template for the expression of phage gene. The help phase mainly involves amplification of the genome p2 it nicks the double strand form of the genome to spring up the replication of strand without which no replication occurs. Host enzymes replicate the(+) strand resulting in more copies of dsDNA.p5 competes with ds DNA formation by sequestering copies of the (+) stranded DNA into a protein/DNA complex designed to pack retrieval phages. Another important protein p10 is important for regulating the number of ds genome in the bacterial host without which no strand an accommodate .Phage maturation requires p4 transmutational restart p11.Mul tiple copies of p4 assemble in outer membrane into a remand barrel shaped structure.A number of p1 and p11 5/6 copies each)assemble inside the inward bacterial membrane.p1 p11 ans p4 together they are responsible for the release of arise phage.REPLICATION IN M13Replication in m13 can be explained as followsViral (+) strand DNA enterscytoplasmComplementary (-) strandis synthesized by bacterial enzymesDNA Gyrase, atype II topoisomerase, acts ondouble-stranded DNAand catalyzes formation ofnegative supercoilsin double-stranded DNAFinal product is parental replicative form (RF) DNAA phage protein, pII, nicks the (+) strand in the RF3-hydroxyl acts as a primer in the creation of new viral strandpII circulizes displaced viral (+) strand DNAPool of progeny double-stranded RF molecules produced minus strand of RF is template of transcriptionmribonucleic acids are translated into the phage proteinsPhage proteins in the cytoplasm are pII, pX, and pV, and they are part of the replication pro cess of DNA. The other phage proteins are synthesized and inserted into the cytoplasmic or outer membranes.pV dimers give impudently synthesized single-stranded DNA and prevent conversion to RF DNARF DNA synthesis continues and amount of pV reaches critical concentrationDNA replication switches to synthesis of single-stranded (+) viral DNApV-DNA structures from about 800nm long and 8nm in diameterpV-DNA complex is substrate in phage manufacture reaction.ResearchSINGLE STRANDED RNA PHAGESSingle stranded RNA are found everywhere E. coli lives in the intestinal tract of man and animals. They can also be found in sewage samples .They are harmless creature in case of humans.RNA phages are tailless, icosahedron like that of 174 and it mainly involves E. coli phages f2,R17,MS-2 Q. The RNA is a linear single stranded molecule having about 3600 nucleotides it contains 3 genes encoding a coat protein an attachment protein (A) and a RNA replicase. The RNA molecule acts both like a template and also like an mRNA so they do not possess a DNA polymerase and the regulation occurs at the translational level. They have large break down size and they form huge crystalline arrays within each bacterium. mobile phone lysis usually takes place at a time ranging from 30-60 minutes later on infection.Virus structure Virions contain about 180 copies of the coat protein lay in a T=3 icosahedral shell that encloses THE RNA. alloleviviruses contain about 15 copies of the read through protein.the encapsidated RNA is resistant to ribonucleinase treatment.The damaged virion are exposed to RNAase activity.The structures have been resolved by x-ray diffraction methodsLife cycle of RNA PHAGEENTRY Upon entry the ribosome they usually attach to the CP gene which is the centremost gene of the RNA molecule.TRANSLATION The stem and closed circuit structures in RNA block the ribosomal binding sites of the A and the Rep proteins. The translation of the CP gene opens the binding site of the R ep proteins .Both proteins are made but the increasing amounts of the CP proteins bind to the rep site and block translation of the rep gene. About 2 x 10 copies are needed as structural components whereas replicase is needed only in catalytic amounts.Replication of the phage RNAThe Qhas a tetramer consisting of one Rep molecule with about deuce-ace proteins-EF-Ts EF-Tutranslation factors needed for the placement of charged TrnaMOLECULESSynthesis of A protein The binding site for the A protein is never available on the free(+)strand. The replication begins at the 3teerminus close to the A gene. After synthesis of the (+) strand begind there is a brief period when the protein A gets translated. The A number is maintained and it is pertain to the number of the (+) strand .it is believed that the A protein bring about the interaction of the RNA with the CP moleculesPARTICLE ASSEMBLY THE CP PROTEIN MOLE CULES spontaneously aggregate around the newly synthesized (+) strand and form an icosahedral shell.Cell lysis Once about 10000 phages are formed the cell undergoes lysis and no lytic enzymes are left place ,the mechanism still remains un cognize.The Q phageIt is an RNA virus impact E.coli.Contains a positive sense single strand RNA.It is one of the smallest known viruses measuring about 24 nm in diameter.Its icosahedral capsid consists of about 180 copies of the same protein. The strands acts like that of an mRNA and it also acts like a template for the replication of a complimentary strand.REFERENCESFilamentous bacterial Viruses(BACTERIOLOGICAL REVIEWS JUNE 1969 pg 177-209.ASM PRESSTHE BACTERIOPHAGES 2ND ,BY CALENDER EDITION OXFORD PRESSMOLECULAR biological science BY FREIFIELDERFROM THE WEB

A Walk in the Woods: Rediscovering America | Book Review

A Walk in the Woods Rediscovering the States phonograph recording ReviewA Walk in the Woods Rediscovering America on the Appalachian TrailA Walk in the Woods Rediscovering America on the Appalachian Trail, a novel by Bill Bryson takes you through with(predicate) the journey of a man looking to connect with more(prenominal) and then just his local environment, but explore nature and go where galore(postnominal) do not dare to go. Although Bryson does not touch either wiz mile he wishes to, at the end of his journey he fulfills more then ever imagined.Bryson creates a sense of place in a variety of different ways. Brysons feelings towards his preparations for the Appalachian Trail give us a better understanding of the sense of place. Are you saying, Dave, that I pay $250 for a pack and it doesnt have straps and it isnt water proof? Does it have a nooky in it? (Bryce, 10). Bryce heads to his local sporting goods store to talk with an expert on the trail. Dave Mengle tells Bryce he must purchase sleeping bags, boots, tents, thermal clothing, cook sets, and packs. We contribute infer that the trail is not simple and requires previous preparation in order to assure ones safety. Bryce comes to realize that this task may not be as easy as he thought and must induce for any dangerous encounters he may face with nature.We get a more clear view of the sense of place and began to see the pur delusionu that Bryce encounters when they enter what seems to be his darling part of the trip so far, the Shenandoah internal Park. He enjoys the lively scenery which includes grouse, deer, owls, and turkeys. Not to mention the easier terrain, this being their favorite part. However, not every animal encounter is pleasant. Bryson remarks, I think I have a right to be a trifle alarmed, condone me. Im in the woods, in the middle of nowhere, in the dark, staring at a bear, with a guy who has nothing to defend himself with but a twin of nail clippers. (Bryson, 142). Bryson becomes fearful when he hears an animal in their cam, but this promptly fades when he realizes that the bear only wishes to drink from a nearby stream.As Bryson says, It was a miracle, I swear to God. Just when I was about to lie overmaster and give myself to the wolves and bobcats, I look up and thithers a smock blaze on a tree and I look down and Im standing on the AT. (Bryson, p. 266) We can conclude that towards the end of the novel a final connection was made between Bryson and Mother Nature. Although Bryson didnt complete every step of the 2,200-mile trail he realized that this is not necessary in order to get the fulfillment he desired before seen offset his journey through the Appalachian Trail.First, Bryson demonstrates human-environment interaction when he must pronto learn to adapt to his environment and knows that this is necessary in order for him to begin his hike down the Appalachian Trail. One of the more clear themes is localization of the story which takes p lace on the Appalachian Trail. The AT is a attach hiking trail in the eastern United States, extending between springing cow mass in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine. Brysons new location to Hanover, bare-assed Hampshire gives him the urge to begin traveling the trail after coming across part of the trail. There were many landmarks throughout Brysons journey to demonstrate place. Springer Mountain is the southern trailhead of the AT. Amicalola Falls Lodge is seven miles from their starting point at Springer Mountain in northern Georgia. bit they are still in northern Georgia, the trail takes Bryson and Katz over a narrow ledge along Big Butt Mountain. Finally, Bishop Boarding domiciliate welcomes Bryson and Katz as they emerge from the Maine woods. Mrs. Bishop assures them that the woods will still be there if they decide to try again.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

The History of Palestine :: essays research papers

The History of Palestine IntroductionSince the second Abbasid stop, which commenced after the mid(prenominal) of the third Hijri century, the Islamic Caliphate State was progressively in weakening work it was broken down into three Caliphates instead of one. The Abbasid Caliphate was established in the eastside the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt, parts of North Africa and Syria, and the Umayyad Caliphate in Andalus. The Crusades took place down the stairs these circumstances. sack--------------------------------------------------------------------------------The political map of the region forrader the CrusadesForty years before the Crusades, the Turkish Saljuks had succeeded in dominating Baghdad and took oer the rule under the nominal Abbasid Caliphate. The Saljuks had managed to dominate over larger parts of Persia, northern Iraq, Armenia and Asia little around 1040 CE. The Saljuk normal, Toghrol Bic, dominated over Bain 1055 CE. The Saljuks spread their rule over the Byzantine s in Asia Minor. On 19 August 1071 CE, the Malathkard battle, under the command of the Saljuk ruler Alb Arsalan, took place, and a catastrophe befell the Byzantines till the end of the eleventh century CE.In 1071 CE, the Saljuks seized virtually of Palestine except for Arsout, and dismissed the Fatimid dominion from it. The Saljuks expanded their dominion to embroil most of Syria.In 1092 CE (485 H Hijra), the Saljuk Sultan Malikshah passed away, thereby disruption down the Saljuks dominion and launching many long and severe battles among them over the dominion and power. In 1096 CE, their rule was divided into five kingdoms Sultanate of Persia (under the ruler Birkiyarouq), acres of Khurasan and beyond the River (under the ruler Singer), Kingdom of Aleppo (under the ruler Radwan), Kingdom of Damascus (under the ruler Daqaq) and the Roman Saljuks Sultanate (under the ruler Qalj Arsalan). Most of the regions in Palestine were subjected to the Damascus regime, and during the helpl essness of the two rulers of Syria (Radwan and Daqaq), a lot of private rulers emerged, none of which dominated much than one city.The Crusaders commenced their military campaign of 1098 CE (491 H) while Muslim regions in Syria, Iraq and others were torn apart because of their differences and bloody involvements. The two brothers, Radwan and Daqaq, sons of Titish, launched a war against apiece other in 490 H. Many battles broke out between Mohammed Ibn Malikshah Birkiyarouq because of their conflict over the power in which they exchanged victories and sermons in the Caliphate court during the period 492-497 H.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Othellos Tragic Flaw Essay -- essays research papers

Of Shakespe atomic number 18s vanadium strikingest tragedies, Othello is by far the closely passionate and gripping. It is a tarradiddle of love, deception, evil, hvirtuososty, and integrity. Othello himself is set apart from other Shakespearean sadal heroes by the peremptory feeling of affection the audience feels for him nonwithstanding unto the actu all in ally end of the play. every discerning reader painfully recognizes the merit and goodness of Othello throughout the inbuilt play, in contrast to the general devolution of character so ordinary of a tragic hero. It is this complete kindness that makes the death of Othello so tragic as the audience lends their full burnished support until the inevitable and requisite fall. The evil side of Othellos tragic flaw came from without, in the blueprint of Iago. The internal flaw exists only in his heartrendingly unshakable goodness and honor. ace of the first impressions gained of Othello is that he is a large(p) war hero. Before untold else is said of him, tales of his skill and valor in battle are illustrated and he is shown to be a great and noted warrior. He naturally possesses legion(predicate) attributes typically associated with soldiers. From the beginning Othello is noble, quick to act, judicious, trusting, and gives ofttimes weight to the importance of duty. These are all traits that serve to make him great at the beginning of the play, and later, ironically become key elements in his downfall. These aspects cease be considered the internal causes of Othellos tragic flaw. Othellos nature is all of one piece. His trust, where he trusts, is absolute. Love, if he loves, must be to him the heaven where either he must go or bear no life. If such a passion as jealousy seizes him, it will swell into a well-night incontrollable flood. Othello is everlasting(a) an... ...conduct the night of the unify feast. Othello is one who believes in justice and pallor and will make no exception, even for the love of his life. Ultimately, he murders her because he is, One that loved not wisely but too well. (V, ii, 398) This, to a higher place all, gives the play its powerful end.Othellos true flaw is not vile, vitriolic jealousy, but rather pure and prevailing love. He has a very strong character of virtue and nobility that is intact up to the usurious end. Iagos deceit and cunning are more the cause of Othellos tragic fall than some(prenominal) fault of Othello himself. This innocence and greatness of the tragic hero unequaled in any other Shakespearean disaster is what gives the play its terrible jeering and passion. Othello plays on the most powerful of all human emotions faith and love, both(prenominal) embodied to the fullest in the great and unspoiled Othello. Othellos Tragic Flaw Essay -- essays research papersOf Shakespeares five greatest tragedies, Othello is by far the most passionate and gripping. It is a tale of love, deception, evil, honesty, and virtue. Othello himself is set apart from other Shakespearean tragic heroes by the absolute feeling of affection the audience feels for him even unto the very end of the play. Any discerning reader painfully recognizes the virtue and goodness of Othello throughout the entire play, in contrast to the general degeneration of character so typical of a tragic hero. It is this complete pity that makes the death of Othello so tragic as the audience lends their full hopeful support until the inevitable and unavoidable fall. The evil side of Othellos tragic flaw came from without, in the form of Iago. The internal flaw exists only in his heartrendingly unshakable goodness and honor.One of the first impressions gained of Othello is that he is a great war hero. Before much else is said of him, tales of his skill and valor in battle are illustrated and he is shown to be a great and famed warrior. He naturally possesses many attributes typically associated with soldiers. From the beginning Othello is noble, quick to act, judicious, trusting, and gives much weight to the importance of duty. These are all traits that serve to make him great at the beginning of the play, and later, ironically become key elements in his downfall. These aspects can be considered the internal causes of Othellos tragic flaw. Othellos nature is all of one piece. His trust, where he trusts, is absolute. Love, if he loves, must be to him the heaven where either he must leave or bear no life. If such a passion as jealousy seizes him, it will swell into a well-night incontrollable flood. Othello is pure an... ...conduct the night of the wedding feast. Othello is one who believes in justice and fairness and will make no exception, even for the love of his life. Ultimately, he murders her because he is, One that loved not wisely but too well. (V, ii, 398) This, above all, gives the play its powerful end.Othellos true flaw is not vile, destructive jealousy, but rather pure and prevailing love. He has a very strong character of virtue and nobility that is intact up to the horrid end. Iagos deceit and trickery are more the cause of Othellos tragic fall than any fault of Othello himself. This innocence and greatness of the tragic hero unequaled in any other Shakespearean tragedy is what gives the play its terrible irony and passion. Othello plays on the most powerful of all human emotions faith and love, both embodied to the fullest in the great and honest Othello.

Abraham Lincoln, Adelicia Acklen and Harriet Tubman Essay -- articles

The time of the the Statesn Revolution was the birth of America. During this terminus of time the Revolutionary contend was fought and America gained its independence from Britain. The resolution of independency was signed July 4, 1976 giving the 13 colonies freedom to govern themselves and shortly thenceforth in 1781, the Articles of Confederation were ratified. These articles empowered the federal government to conduct inappropriate affairs, make treaties, and declare war, which had been essential in the struggle for independence. In 1787, The temperament of the United States further strengthened our laws. During the next 100 years Americans bear upon to build communities and wealth based on the principles and laws contained within these documents. During colonial America and the period leading to the Civil War slavery was the foundation of the socioeconomic system. This topic created an ongoing debate between the north, south and free states. The Declaration of Indep endence declares, That all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain nontransferable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of blessedness (Foner, 2013, A-18). Abraham Lincoln President of the United States of America, Adelicia Acklen plantation owner, and Harriet Tubman, abolitionist define what these unalienable rights meant to them in the 19th century, the period that created an opportunity for change and a renascence for America. Abraham Lincoln was born February 12, 1809 in Hodgenville, Kentucky to Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. He had dickens siblings, sister Sarah who was older than him and younger brother Thomas, who died during infancy. The family was eventually forced to move out of Kentucky to seek other opp... ..., 692-696.OBAMA, B. (2013). Proclamation 8943--establishment of the Harriet Tubman underground railroad guinea pig monument. Daily Compilation Of Presidential Documents, 1.Ranney, J. A. (2010). In praise of whig lawyering a remark on Abraham Lincoln as lawyer and politician. Marquette Law Review, 93(4), 1325-1331.Rowland, T. Rowland, E. (2013). Maryland memorializes Harriet Tubman.history. The acknowledgment center. 26(3), ISSN 1046-2899,Scott, K. & Collins, S. (2010). Frederick Douglas and Abraham Lincoln on black equity in the civil war a historical-rhetorical perspective. Black History Bulletin, 73(2), 8-15.The Belmont Mansion. (2014). Retrieved from thebelmontmansion.comThe Examiner. (2011). Woman play dramatic, if unheralded roles in the civil war. Retrieved from

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Delta Airlines :: Essays Papers

Delta AirlinesWho would have plan that a major descentline of today could contribute its success to Boll Weevil louses that decimated the cotton plant fields of the south. Some say there would not have been a Delta Airlines at all if it were not for the Boll Weevil infestation of the early 1920s. Even the describe came from the Mississippi Delta where the Boll Weevils plagued many cotton fields. According to the book Delta Airlines by J ones, C.E. Woolman was the jock district agent working for the U.S. Department of agricultures bureau of Entomology research laboratory in Tullulah, Louisiana. Woolman was an agricultural engineering graduate from the University of Illinois and could be categorized as an aviation enthusiast. Along with Dr. B.R. Coad, Woolman developed a promising weapon against the insect but needed a more efficient means to stretch it across a vast area. Congress gave the researchers a small collapse that allowed them to acquire twain ex-US Army Curtiss Jenn y Aircraft. However, it was not until 1923 that things started to happen for the two researchers. A man by the name of George Post, a New York businessman from Huff-Daland Airplanes, Inc. was tent-flying south when he was forced to land because of mechanical problems with his airplane. He landed in Tullulah and discovered Coad and Woolmans experimental dusting operation. He considered this to be a commercial opportunity he could not pass up. After convince management, the Huff-Daland Dusters started at Macon, Georgia, in 1924. However, there was not much success so the operation moved to Monroe Louisiana. From Monroe, the business quickly grew but it was only seasonal worker so Wollman decided to diversify and set up operations in Peru. It was while in Peru that Woolman and his company secured South American airmail rights to fly between Peru and Ecuador. This was when Woolman first appreciated the possible value of a passenger service in 1927. When back in Monroe, Woolman secu red some private financial support from private businessmen and started his own Aviation Company. Deltas first aircraft were three five-spot passenger Travel Air 4000s. On March 15, 1940, Delta added its third crewmember, the Stewardess, to its air service on the DC-2 Aircraft. In 1941, Delta moved its general offices and overhaul bag from Monroe to Atlanta. Through the years Delta merged with Northwestern and Western Airlines to become one of the largest airlines in the world.

Essay --

Robert L. Johnson is one of the most well renowned African American entrepreneurs. He is best known for his troupe BET Holdings, INC. A triple threat, Johnson is the creator, chairman, and CEO of this company. His company became the first African American controlled line of reasoning company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. After selling his company to Viacom, an enormous media group in 2001, he became the first African American billionaire. Johnson led the way for many entrepreneurs such as Oprah Winfrey, Montel Williams, and many more.Robert Louis Johnson was natural April 8, 1946 in Hickory, Mississippi. He was the ninth out of the ten children in his family. In 1968, he received his Bachelors mark in recital at the University of Illinois and in 1972 he received his Masters Degree in unrestricted Administration at Princeton University. After graduating with his Masters Degree, went on to work for the Corporation of Public Broadcasting. During his employment with the Cor poration of Public Broadcasting, Johnson joined the U.S. Army Reserve and served in the Vietnam War. He went back to w...

Monday, March 25, 2019

My Tear Essay -- Narrative Crying Descriptive Depression Essays

Have you ever been crippled or felt so incapable of something? Has anything felt so empowering that you didnt know what to do or how to rigging the situation? Have you ever felt so much trouble where it seemed like it immobilized your body? Have you ever felt so gloomy that you really didnt know where the source of depression was coming from? These be the questions that come to my mind when I think about each and any tear that ever hits my face. I oppugn how many tears are actually hitting my face, how many actually seep into my skin. I wonder if people think the same way that I think or it they sometimes feel the same way that I feel. Many delivery often loose their connotation. A tear to me is no longer a tear. A tear to me is history. It is the constant reminder of hurt, that sometimes spreads its way by means of my body. A tear is pain and memories, a tear is something that cant be erased, its something that only I see and that most will never see. You can never f eel exactly what I feel or understand the way that I heal you can never sincerely know why I hurt, so deep inside...

The Legality and Ethics of Internet Advertising Essay -- Exploratory E

The Legality and Ethics of net Advertising ABSTRACT Recently,, one of the worlds premier meshwork announce firms was at the center of a Federal Trade armorial bearing investigation on privacy. Consumer privacy advocates have charged the company with infringing on the privacy of tissuesurfers because of the aggressive means it uses to forgather data for profit. This paper discusses the profound and moral issues surrounding these tactics. Were the companys aggressive tactics licitly permissible? Were they ethical? Companies such as DoubleClick need to inform the websurfer that he/she is being monitored. The world of the Internet uses advertising as its central driving force. Internet start-up companies have spent millions upon millions of dollars on advertising, making Internet advertising a very lucrative business. In fact, right now the advertising market is estimated to be worth about $6.6 billion and is expected to be worth $27 billion by 2004.1 One of the leaders in the business,, has a significant market share of the industry with over 1,500 knob sites. The aggressive means by which DoubleClick operates has made it the advertiser of choice by many Internet companies. The power of DoubleClick is in its usage of Internet cookies to gather study on web surfers. Every time you visit a website that is powered by DoubleClick, an Internet cookie is placed on to your web browser. The cookie helps DoubleClick track what your Internet habits are and which websites you visit most often. This information is then kept in a database that is later used by DoubleClick to target consumers with ads based on the information that it has on different user types. It is estim... ...m/NewWebstories/doubleclick_priv_2_23.htmNotes1 Frook, John E. Tactics vary in race for ad network dominance. BtoB. October 23, 2000 Vol. 85 1.2 Magill, Ken. DoubleClick Profiling Not Dead, iMarketing News Vol.2 No.9 (2000)1.3 IBID.4 IBID.5 What Goes Up(The DoubleClick Story). Privacy Times. February 3,2000 <http// FTC Closes Investigation of DoubleClicks Privacy Practices. January 22, 2001 http//www.doubleclick.net80/us/corporate/ pressure levelkit/press-releases.asp?asp_object_1=& press%5Frelease%5Fid=24897 Anstead, Mark. InternetTaking a tough line on privacy- New legislation threatens internet data collection. Marketing. April 13, 2000.8 IBID.9 Hawkins, Dana Mannix, Margaret. Personal Tech. U.S. News & World Report. Vol. 129 No.13.10 IBID.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Anne Finchs Poems :: Anne Finch Poetry Poem Essays

Anne Finchs Poems While other writers use their poetry to line the meaning of life, Anne Finch, Countess of Winchilsea was busy writing ab reveal how to live it. Five of her poems, Jupiter and the Farmer, The Tree, The ward Piping to the Fishes, Love, Death, and Reputation, and Theres No To-Morrow, convey strong messages to the indorser about how to live their lives. In her poetry, Anne Finch uses anecdotes to help illustrate the validity of her statements, thereby providing the reader with a strong, meaningful, and important message about how life should be lived. Jupiter and the Farmer tells the story of a husbandman who took it upon himself to chequer the weather in favor of his crops The Frost to kill the Worm, the brooding Snow, / The filling Rains may come, and Phoebus fire (14 15). In doing this, the farmer plays god himself rather than let the real god, Jupiter, control things. The farmer ends up choosing what he wanted in such a bad fashion, he ruins his cr ops and is with Famine pinchd (24). Upon the realization of his mistake, the farmer calls upon Jupiter and promises he ordain no longer take fate into his make overhauls. He resolves to let Jupiter lead the way while he lives to gather (30). Through this poem, Finch stresses how important fate is in everyday lives. Like the farmer, we may have a desire to try and take the reigns from destiny, but it will never end well. Finch says we should just leave our lives to fate, and everything will work out alright. In The Tree, the speaker talks to a steer and express thank for its delightful shade (1). The speaker goes on to talk of the others who benefited from the existence of the tree and gave it something back in return, such as the birds singing, travelers praising its welcome shade, and nymphs making crowns from its blooms. The speaker wonders what she can do to repay the shade apt(p) her by the tree. She decides to wish something for the trees future. She wishes , To future ages mayst railway yard stand / Untouchd by the rash workmans hand (19 20). Ultimately, she wishes something such as some bright hearth (32) be make from the tree at its death.

The Use of Force Essay -- Health Care

The Use of Force, written by William Carlos Williams is a floor ab aside a conflicted unnamed fasten using physical force to determine a diagnosis. The interview that is brought up is whether or not the doctors role of force was one of ethical duty or infuriating violence. The doctor makes it his duty to save the patient, Mathilda as she does not cooperate he makes a choice to go on and use force to open her m come outh to determine her diagnosis. The choice of using force isnt necessarily the confutative part, the motive on using physical force is debatable. The ultimate heading that the short story, the Use of Force asks is whether or not the doctors motives become one of dutiful compassion or desirable violence. As the story begins, the unnamed doctor is introduced as one who appears to be rigorously professional. Aas often, in such cases, they werent demonstrateing me more than they had to, it was up to me to tell them thats why they were spending three dollars on me. (par. 3) The doctor leaves the head start impression that he is one that keeps his attention about the job and zippo out of the ordinary besides stating his impressions on the mother, father and the patient, Mathilda. Though he does manage to note that Mathilda has a fever. The doctor takes what he considers a ladder shot and point of departure by inquiring what he suspects is a harebrained throat (par. 6). This point in the story, nothing remains out of the ordinary or questionable about the doctors methods, until the story further develops. The doctor contains his professionalism, but as it goes on, pieces of frustrated irregularities begin to surface. As the doctor learns that the parents say no, that the girl says she doesnt have a sore throat, he purs... ...der what motive? He had to justify his motives, perhaps to add nearly morality to ensure what he was doing was ethical. He would flip that thought, perhaps to evidence and downplay his desire to unleash his violent frustration onto the girl. He in the long run saved Mathildas life in a sense, but on a lower floor which motive? I believe the this is the question William Carlos Williams The Use of Force has the contributor ask themselves. Under a emergency situation the human correspond can be torn between a code of morality or a dominance of dark desire. No doubt in The Use of Force, the end of the situation turned out rise as the girl could be saved, but the method to find out was ambiguous. How well would the case between doing the right thing and doing what you desire turn out in any other situation? I believe this is the question that William Carlos Williams wanted the reader to think about.

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Spectroscopy: The Search for Extraterrestrial Life Essay -- Astronomy

Throughout history humanity has been fascinated by the existence of extraterrestrial life. Today much(prenominal) ventures are in the evolution process and the discovery of life beyond our solar system, no thing how primitive, may soon become a huge(important?) scientific breakthrough. The three canonical things that are required to consider a place even remotely habitable are water, a source of energy, and organic materials. Habitability also depends on other factors that must also be taken into consideration such as how close the planet is to its star (in the case of our solar system, the sun), how unyielding the water and organic materials existed there, and the size and mass of the planet. hotshot must non confuse habitable with inhabited. The term habitable suggests only that there is a possibility that life could exist, not necessarily that life was present or still is. For more than a decade the interest of searching for exoplanets (planets beyond our solar system) that are Earth-like has grown. At present, NASAs Kepler mission is searching almost 170,000 stars for orbiting planets. (Astronomy, April 2011, p.31). Only recently have discoveries of exoplanets been confirmed, although astronomers have been searching for such planets for centuries. One method employed by astronomers for planetary discovery, that uses data collected by the Kepler spacecraft, is the transit method. A transiting planet is a planet that passes in previous of its host star as seen from Earth. (Wolf, 2007) In essence, what is detected is a clarified dimming in the host stars light. Astronomers then determine whether the planet in the habitable zone of its star. The habitable zone (HZ) is the area virtually a star where it is possible for water to remain liquid on the surf... ... expensive venture. What is possible now is to pinpoint the planets with the best odds in supporting life. For now, perhaps the best approach is to stay close to home and explore the plane ts in our solar system.Works CitedVillard, R. (2011, April). Hunting for earthlike planets. Astronomy, 39(4), 28-33. Johnson, J. A. (2011, April). The stars that host planets. Sky & Telescope, 121(4), 22-27. Field, T. (2011, August). Spectroscopy for everyone. Sky & Telescope, 122(2), 68-71. What is spectroscopy?. (2004, August 7). Retrieved from http// Wolf, P. (2007, August). Extrasolar planets. Retrieved from http//, A. W., & Cooper, J. N. (1979). Elements of physics. (9th ed., pp. 373-376). Toronto McGraw-Hill.

The Aesthetic Pedagogy of Francis of Assisi Essay -- Francis Assisi Es

The Aesthetic Pedagogy of Francis of AssisiABSTRACT Despite his anti-intellectualism, Francis of Assisi was an effective teacher who designedly illustrated the life of meritoriousness in his own way of living. He was a teacher in the sense that the Hebrew prophets, Socrates or Gandhi were teachers. He was a performance artist for whom drama functioned pedagogically. His life was non always meant to be an example to his followers sometimes it was a dramatic lesson, meant to be watched, not imitated. All drama is inherently a distortion of reality because it focuses the heed on one aspect of reality. Francis dramatized life distorts the importance of poverty, but this is a distortion from which we may be fitting to learn if we ar able to imaginatively identify with Francis. For Francis, asceticism was a form of obedience, and obedience a mode of knowledge. Such personalized, lived teaching is the only way in which virtue (as opposed to ethics) may be effectively taught. Francis f ollowed the same model of paideia as Gandhi, bringing together the physical discipline of radical asceticism with the artistic experience of a dramatic life in which he compete the roles of troubadour and fool. Unlike most of the other Western European figures of the 12th-century who are frequent subjects of academic study, Francis of Assisi was not a scholar. He had the education countenance to the middle-class son of a prosperous merchant, but he neer taught in a university, never wrote a Summa or a translation on the Sentences, never spent time in libraries. For much of his lifetime, the bon ton of Friars Minor didnt even own a Bible, let only if any other books. Brother Leo, one of Francis closest companions, wrote of him that he did not want ... ...hton, 1923), p. 106.(6) Bonaventure, Major sprightliness, VI. 2.(7) Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (Garden City Doubleday, 1959), pp. 17-18.(8) cited in Goffman, op. cit., pp. 19, 20.(9) Dorothy Hea thcote, Collected Writings on Education and swordplay (London Hutchinson, 1984), p. 114.(10) cited in Howard Williams, Concepts of Ideology (New York St. Martins Press, 1988), p. 111.(11) Walter Brueggemann, The Creative Word Canon as a Model for Biblical Education, (Philadelphia Fortress Press, 1986), p. 91.(12) Brueggemann, op. cit., p. 104.(13) Leroy S. Rouner, Can Virtue Be Taught in a School?, Can Virtue Be Taught?, vol. 14, Boston University Studies in Philosophy and Religion, ed. Barbara Darling-Smith, p. 142.(14) Rouner, op. cit., p.147.(15) Rouner, op. cit., p. 148.(16) Chesterton, op. cit., p. 86.

Friday, March 22, 2019

Nolan Ryan vs. Greg Maddux :: essays research papers

Nolan Ryan vs. Greg MadduxNolan Ryan and Greg Maddux are two of the greatest pitchers to take a crap played the second of baseball. They were both the top pitchers of their respective leagues and played in m whatsoever all-star games. This brings up a question of which angiotensin-converting enzyme is the better pitcher. The only way to invent this out is to compare their stats and to compare the polar time periods in which they pitched. epoch comparing stats you have to remember that these two pitchers have completely different styles. Nolan Ryan was a indicant pitcher and Greg Maddux was a guile pitcher. A power pitcher fortuitys a lot of fast ball pitches that he tries to throw by the batter any way he possibly can. The finesse pitcher has off speed pitches that he throws for location around the home base rather than just trying to throw past the batter. I would have to say that Greg Maddux is the better pitcher of the two. He has pitched great baseball through what wi ll be remembered as a hitters era.Greg Maddux in his locomote has only played in one league, the theme League. When he broke into the show he came in with the Chicago Cubs. Greg was with the Cubs for a short time and consequently left on free force and settled in with the Atlanta Braves. He has had many great eld with the Atlanta Braves with many more still to come. Nolan Ryan Played for four different teams through his 24 year career. Nolan started his carrer with the New York Mets (National League), then California Angles (American League), then Houston Astros (National League), and ended his career with the Texas Rangers (American League). Greg Maddux has certain four Cy new-made Awards in his thirteen-year career. The Cy Young Award is the award that is given to the best pitcher for the year. Nolan Ryan never received a single Cy Young Award. This is an especially hard accomplishment now. The late years in baseball have been the biggest offensive years that the rollick h as ever seen. There has been more batters with 30, 40, or 50 homeruns than there has any other time in history. Greg Maddux has to look at least one thirty-homerun man every time he pitches and still has a career e.r.a. (earned run average) of 2.75. Ryans career e.r.a. is 3.19 and he did not have to face as many hitters that could hurt a pitcher.