Saturday, August 31, 2019
As a firm grows the lines of communication are often stretched. To overcome this meetings could be set up to keep people informed. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s span of control could be re-emphasised so that workers know whom to report to and who to inform of their orders. A clear structure and hierarchical pyramid will reduce arguments in the short term. Team building exercises are a modern way of improving morale, team spirit and efficiency. They are a long-term measure to keep all managers striving for the same aims and goals for the company as a team. I have been assigned by the company Koka Kola to sort out the problem they have where a new base 50 miles outside of there London head quarters has been built. The problem is the communication between the two bases; I need to find the best way to communicate between the two bases. Business Objectives The Business has objectives it must achieve; the businesses main objective is to set up a new communications system between the London Head Office and the newly built Production Site. The problem with this is that it may clash with another objective, Profit. If the company is to spend money on a new communications system it must make sure that the money spent on the system, staff, marketing etc, does not overshadow the money made by sales and other sources of profit. This, although a big problem could have benefits in the long term. If the money spent on setting up the Communications System is more than the profit made that month. In the months after when the System is set up, the benefits in profit as a result of the it being set up could be far greater than that in past months before it was made and so in the future could eventually be bigger than the amount paid on the Communications System and maybe even the Production Site. This concludes that although the short-term objectives maybe conflicted, the long term must be waited upon in order to reap the benefits. Communication: Communication is the process of passing information from one person to another. Once the target receives the information it is acted upon and feedback is sent to the original sender. An example of communication in business might be a company producing cars. The message might be an advertisement on television telling customers about a new car. The target will be the segment of the market interested in buying a car. The feedback will be the level of sales when the magazine first goes on sale. Communications are important in a business because it keeps the company working on the right track. For example if a marketing director who never asked the customers what they wanted in a product made a set up an advertising scheme on television, the advertisement would be based on the directors interests rather than the views of the customers. The customers wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be interested and would turn a blind eye. The problem with the business I have been appointed to is that the business is splitting into two bases amongst which people will work who would normally communicate with each other. I have organised an interview with a worker from a local business to find out what methods of communication they use: 1) How many methods of communication do you use in your business?
Friday, August 30, 2019
Assessing the English Language Learner (ELL) The Growth of ELL (ESL) The number of human beings who speak a language other than English continues to increase in the United States, Canada, and Australia, for example, as the number of immigrants grows. In 2006, 34. 70% of the population of Los Angeles, California, was foreign born; 25. 50% of Miami, Florida; 39. 60% of Vancouver, British Columbia; 45. 70% of Toronto, Ontario; 28. 90% of Melbourne, Australia; and 31. 70% of Sydney, Australia (Statistics Canada, 2008).In the United States, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES, 2004) reported that Ã¢â¬Å"The number and percentage of language minority youth and young adultsÃ¢â¬â that is, individuals who speak a language other than English at homeÃ¢â¬âincreased steadily in the United States between 1979 and 1999Ã¢â¬ (p. 1). NCES added, Of those individuals ages 5Ã¢â¬â24 in 1979, 6 million spoke a language other than English at home. By 1999, that number had more th an doubled, to 14 million. Accordingly, of all 5- to 24-year-olds in the United States, the percentage who were language minorities increased from 9 percent in 1979 to 17 percent in 1999. p. 1) The number of ESL students in U. S. public schools has almost tripled over the last decade (Goldenberg, 2006). In 2004 Crawford observed that one-fourth of the school-age students in the United States were from homes where a language other than English was spoken. The school-age population (KÃ¢â¬â12) will reach about 40% ESL in about 20 years (Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence, 2002). Between 1990 and 2000, the number of Spanish speakers increased from about 20 to 31 million (U. S.Census Bureau, 2001). The Census Bureau report also showed a significant increase in the number of speakers from other linguistic groups, particularly Chinese and Russian. Individuals at all ages enter school to learn the English skills they need to learn, gain employment and participate in society. Planning for their instruction is a significant issue for teachers at all levels and assessment becomes central. In this chapter we first define and differentiate terms such as ESL and ELL and describe the populations they represent.The use of assessment measures to place students into appropriate instructional groups is described and the distinction between interpersonal and academic language is reviewed. The use of assessment in the classroom and as a gate-keeping tool is addressed in addition to the appropriateness of the use of published measures to assess ESL students. The first issue addressed is terminology. Defining ELL Over the years students who speak a language other than English have been titled English as a Second Language (ESL) learners.However, English in some cases is not the second language (L2), but may be the third (L3), the 4th (L4), etc. , language, and, as a result, members of this population have different linguistic resources to draw on. The term Ã¢â¬Å"English Language LearnerÃ¢â¬ (ELL) has been adopted by educators, primarily in the United States, to describe better the notion that English may not be the L2. However, it is not a particularly good term because students who speak English as a First Language (L1) are also English language learners (Gunderson, 2008).The term Ã¢â¬Å"Teaching English to Speakers of Other LanguagesÃ¢â¬ (TESOL) is used outside of the United States. Students who learn English in environments where it is not the language of the community are referred to as English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students. The pedagogy related to EFL is different from ESL (ELL) because students are not immersed in English in the community and the major task of the teacher is to try to provide them English models (Gunderson, 2008, 2009). An added difficulty with the term Ã¢â¬Å"ESLÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"ELLÃ¢â¬ is that it does not adequately characterize the diversity of human beings it represents.Those who use the t erm Ã¢â¬Å"ELLÃ¢â¬ do so to describe those KÃ¢â¬â12 students who come from homes in which the language used for daily communications is not English and who must learn English to succeed in schools where the medium of instruction is English. The ELL (ESL) Population A serious problem with the ELL (ESL) conceptualization is that it does not adequately describe the underlying complexities of differences in age, motivation, literacy background, and first and second language achievement (Gunderson, 2008, 2009).Those classified as ELL or ESL vary in age from pre-school to senior adults. Many speak no English at all, while others vary in oral English proficiency. Many have never attended school, while others have earned high academic credentials in the language of instruction in their home countries. They are from diverse cultural backgrounds that vary in the way they perceive the importance of teaching and learning. Many are immigrants to an English-speaking country, while many ELL learners are born in an English-speaking country, but speak a different language at home (Gunderson, 2008, 2009).Indeed, in the Vancouver, Canada, school district 60% of the kindergarten students are ESL and 60% of this number are born in Canada (Gunderson, 2007, 2009). Many immigrant ESL students come from impoverished refugee backgrounds, others have high levels of education and socioeconomic status. Thus, ESLs or ELLs do not adequately represent the underlying complexity of the human beings in the category. Assessment Issues in ELLInstruction in mainstream classes, those typically enrolling students of different abilities but of the same relative age in the same classrooms, is based broadly on the notion that the acquisition of English is developmental and occurs over time as human beings grow into maturity. It is also thought that there is a relationship between language development and Ã¢â¬Å"grade level. Ã¢â¬ Grade 1 students differ from Grade 7 students in systematic ways. Their teachers design instruction that is appropriate for their grade levels.ESL (ELL) students represent a more complex problem because their English and their cultural and learning backgrounds vary in many different ways, even in individuals who are the same chronological age (Gunderson, 2009). In addition, Cummins (1979a, 1979b, 1981, 1983, 2000) and Cummins and Swain (1986) argued there are two basic kinds of English a learner has to learn; Ã¢â¬Å"basic interpersonal communicative skillÃ¢â¬ [BICS] and Ã¢â¬Å"cognitive academic language proficiencyÃ¢â¬ [CALP], the language of instruction and academic texts. BICS appears to take about 2 to 3 years to develop and CALP about 5 to 7. Ã¢â¬Å"Hello, how are you? and Ã¢â¬Å"What is your nameÃ¢â¬ represent BICS, while Ã¢â¬Å"Identify a current controversial world political issue and develop and defend your positionÃ¢â¬ is an example of CALP. Teachers are faced with the task of determining what learning activities and materia ls are appropriate for instruction and measurement of learning, while institutions such as universities and some governments are interested in determining whether or not an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s English ability is advanced enough for them to either enter a post-secondary program or to have the skills necessary to be integrated into a society and, therefore, be eligible to immigrate.Thus, in some instances, assessment serves to guide learning by informing teachers of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs while in others it serves as a gatekeeper by excluding those who do not meet its standards. Instructional LevelsÃ¢â¬âDetermining Appropriate Instructional Strategies Language teachers have for some time opted to assess their students to ascertain their Ã¢â¬Å"levelÃ¢â¬ of English language proficiency. The difficulty with the levels approach is that they do not really exist (Gunderson, 2009). A popular levels approach was developed in 1983 by the American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Lang uages (ACTFL).The assessment is a one-on-one assessment focusing primarily on oral language. Three levels of beginner, intermediate, and advanced are distinguished (see, ACTFL, 1983). A learner can be identified as a low beginner or a high intermediate, etc. The behaviors that determine inclusion in a particular group are usually described in an assessment matrix. The assessor asks a series of questions to elicit knowledge of vocabulary, syntax, and pragmatics. The following is an example of a matrix developed by Gunderson (2009) showing oral language Ã¢â¬Å"levelsÃ¢â¬ and their attendant features. * 0-Level English 1.Cannot answer even yes/no questions 2. Is unable to identify and name any object 3. Understands no English 4. Often appears withdrawn and afraid * Beginner 1. Responds to simple questions with mostly yes/no or one-word responses 2. Speaks in 1Ã¢â¬â2 word phrases 3. Attempts no extended conversations 4. Seldom, if ever, initiates conversations * Intermediate 1. Re sponds easily to simple questions 2. Produces simple sentences 3. Has difficulty elaborating when asked 4. Uses syntax/vocabulary adequate for personal, simple situations 5. Occasionally initiates conversations * Advanced 1. Speaks with ease 2. Initiates conversations 3.May make phonological or grammatical errors, which can then become fossilized 4. Makes errors in more syntactically complex utterances 5. Freely and easily switches codes More elaborate approaches involve the assessment of English listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, e. g. , the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CCLB, 2007). The notion of levels is an important one for teachers because they are thought to predict a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s probability of succeeding within a particular teaching and learning environment. A beginner is different from an intermediate in various ways, and the instruction they are involved in is also different.Teachers often refer to ESL students as Level 1 or Level 5, depending upon their performance on an assessment measure. The notion of levels varies widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In some cases there are 3, 4, 5, 8, or 10 levels, which are determined most often by locally developed informal assessment measures (Gunderson & Murphy Odo, 2010). Good assessment is essential to the design of appropriate instructional programs. The difficulty for classroom teachers is that there are few, if any, appropriate measures for them to use. Classroom AssessmentBlack and William (1998) reviewed more than 250 studies and found that there was a relationship between good classroom assessment and student performance. Most classroom-based assessment has been developed by teachers (Frisby, 2001; Wiggins, 1998). Unfortunately, most teachers report they are unprepared to assess and teach ESL students (Fradd & Lee, 2001). According to Pierce (2002), the majority of teachers employ assessments they remember they were involved in when they were in school: multiple-choice, cloze -like measures, matching, and true/false tests.This seems to have been the pattern for 50 years (Bertrand, 1994). Unfortunately, it seems, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ many teachers are unprepared for the special needs and complexities of fairly and appropriately assessing ELLsÃ¢â¬ (Ehlers-Zavala, Daniel, & Sun-Irminger, 2006, p. 24). Gunderson and Murphy Odo (2010) have recently reviewed the measures used by teachers in 12 local school districts to assess ESL students. The number of different measures and approaches in use was surprising. The Idea Proficiency Test (IPT) (see Ballard, Dalton, & Tighe, 2001a, 2001b) was the measure most often used for primary level ESL students.Other assessments mentioned were the Brigance, (1983) the Bilingual Syntax Measure (Burt, Dulay, & Hernandez, 1976), the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test (Woodcock, various dates), the Woodcock-Munoz (Woodcock-Munoz-Sandoval, 1993), the Pre-IPT, the Comprehensive English Language Test (CELT; Harris & Palmer, 1986), informal reading inventories, the Waddington Diagnostic Reading Inventory (Waddington, 2000), the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Inventory, the SLEP, the Gap (McLeod & McLeod, 1990), PM Benchmarks (a system for placing students in leveled books), the RAD (Reading Achievement DistrictÃ¢â¬âa local assessment measure), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT; Dunn & Dunn, 1997), and a variety of locally developed listening, speaking, reading, and writing assessments. A serious difficulty is that most of these measures were not designed to provide ESL instructional levels so different heuristics in different districts were developed to translate them into levels.The designation Ã¢â¬Å"beginner,Ã¢â¬ for instance, varies significantly across districts as a result of the measures involved and the number of levels districts chose to identify. Two school districts reported the development and norming of tests for elementary and secondary students comprised of leveled passages taken from academic textbooks that were transformed into maze passages (see Guthrie, Seifert, Burnham, & Caplan, 1974). Scores from these measures were used to compute ESL levels; four in one case and five in the other. Interestingly, different metrics were used to compute instructional levels. So, for instance, a CELT score was used to determine ESL levels based on local intuition and experience.Most often the locally developed assessments involved one-on-one interviews in which students respond to tasks that require recognition of colors, body parts, school items, and the ability to answer simple questions (see, for example, Gunderson, 2009). There are also standardized assessments used by personnel at post-secondary institutions to make decisions concerning admissions to their programs. Predicting Academic Success The best known standardized English assessment measure is the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) published by Educational Testing Service (ETS). The publisher notes: In fact, m ore institutions accept TOEFL test cores than any other test scores in the world Ã¢â¬â more than 7,000 colleges, universities and licensing agencies in more than 130 countries, to be exact. (ETS, 2009a) There are different forms of the TOEFL. The classic paper-and-pencil form had standardized scores with 500 being the mean and 50 being the standard deviation. There are newer versions including a computer- and an Internet-based version that have different scoring criteria (see score comparison tables (ETS, 2009b)). The online version is based on a Ã¢â¬Å"communicative competenceÃ¢â¬ model that requires learners to view clips of science lessons, for example, take notes, and respond to questions.TOEFL scores are used by post-secondary institutions to screen students for admission to their programs. The criteria for admission to programs varies from institution to institution and among departments in institutions (see, for instance, University of British Columbia, 2009). There is evidence that TOEFL scores are not highly predictive of success in university (Al-Musawi & Al-Ansari, 1999), however, although they continue to be used to do so. ETS also produces the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) and the Secondary Level English Proficiency (SLEP), both standardized assessment measures. The primary users of the SLEP are secondary teachers.The SLEP Ã¢â¬Å"measures the ability to understand spoken English,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the ability to understand written EnglishÃ¢â¬ focusing on grammar, vocabulary, and reading comprehension (ETS, 2009c). The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) is a test of English language proficiency developed by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (2009). There are two versions: individuals who want to gain admission to a university in an English-speaking country take the academic version, while the other version is appropriate for trade schools and other purposes. Scores range f rom 1 to 9 with 1 being zero-level English, while 9 indicates native-like ability. Different universities require different IELTS scores to be eligible for admission.Both ETS and Cambridge have international centers around the world where students can take these tests. ELL assessment issues and standardized testing are procedures relevant to large-scale achievement testing in the United States. Large Scale or High-Stakes Testing According to Abedi, Hofstetter, and Lord (2004), Ã¢â¬Å"Historically, English language learners in the United States were excluded from participation in large-scale student assessment programs; there were concerns about the confounding influences of language proficiency and academic achievementÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). However, the United States has seen a focus on large-scale assessments due to the accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL 107-110).No Child Left Behind permits assessing ELLs in their first language for up to 3 years, but few states do. In 2005 a group of school districts sued the state of California to force it to allow Spanish-speaking students to take state-mandated tests in Spanish. Plaintiffs in Coachella Valley Unified School District v. California argued that the state Ã¢â¬Å"violated its duty to provide valid and reliable academic testingÃ¢â¬ (King, 2007). On July 30, 2009, Ã¢â¬Å"The First District Court of Appeal in San Francisco rejected arguments by bilingual-education groups and nine school districts that English-only exams violate a federal lawÃ¢â¬â¢s requirement that limited-English-speaking students Ã¢â¬Ëshall be assessed in a valid and reliable mannerÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Egelko, 2009).A lawyer for the school districts and advocacy groups stated, The court dodges the essential issue in the lawsuit, which is: What is the testing supposed to measure? If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to evaluate the testing, California gets a free pass on testing kids (who) donÃ¢â¬â¢t speak English, using tests that they have literally no evidence of their validity. (Egelko, 2009) The ruling was that Ã¢â¬Å"The law does not authorize a court to act as Ã¢â¬Å"the official second-guesserÃ¢â¬ of the reliability of a stateÃ¢â¬â¢s testing methods. Ã¢â¬ The difficulty is that English measures are neither reliable nor valid when ESL students are involved. In some cases, accommodations are made for them.The procedures of providing ELL students accommodations during assessment sessions varies across jurisdictions, but includes such activities as lengthening the time allowed to take a test, allowing ELLs to be tested in separate rooms, allowing students to use bilingual dictionaries, the use of two versions of the test at the same time written in English and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ first languages, providing oral translations for students, and composing responses in first languages. In 1998Ã¢â¬â1999, 39 states reported using test accommodations (Rivera, Stansfield, Scialdone, & Sharkey, 20 00). There is considerable controversy about providing accommodations, however.At the time of the writing of this chapter, accommodating students through the provision of L1 assessments has been judged not to be required. ELLs, Assessment, and Technology Advances in technology have made it possible for assessments to be administered as computer- or Internet-based measures. These developments have already taken place with measures such as the TOEFL (see above). An increasing use of technology to administer standardized and non-standardized assessments has raised interest in issues relating to mode-effects (e. g. , computer displays versus print form) and familiarity with computers, which have significant implications for ELLs.There is evidence that performance in paper-based and computer-based modes of assessment may vary due to ethnicity or gender (Gallagher, Bridgeman, & Cahalan, 2002). In addition, familiarity with computers is known to influence performance in writing (Horkay, Be nnett, Allen, Kaplan, & Yan, 2006) and mathematics (Bennett et al. , 2008) high-stakes tests. These issues need to be taken into consideration with ELLs particularly immigrant and refugee students. A related problem has to do with access. Indeed, access to computer and/or to the Internet is widely varied and, therefore, creates systematic differences in access. These are all areas that need further research. The State of the Art of ELL Assessment ResearchAs noted above, the category ESL or ELL is deceptive in that it represents millions of human beings who vary in age, first-language development, English achievement (both interpersonal and academic), educational backgrounds, immigration status, motivation, socioeconomic background, cultural views of teaching and learning, professional backgrounds, and social and academic aspirations. It is not, therefore, possible to review the breadth and depth of available research in this chapter. There are, however, some overall generalizations that can be made. Generally, the assessment practices and approaches designed for and used with native English speakers have been adopted and used with ELL students. This phenomenon is especially apparent in jurisdictions such as the United States where high-stakes assessments have become so important.There are serious validity and reliability concerns associated with this practice. It is not clear that the notion of accommodation, one borrowed from special education, helps in either case. Leung and Lewkowicz (2008) argue that this Ã¢â¬Å"common educational treatment irrespective of differences in language backgroundsÃ¢â¬ (p. 305) is emblematic of the view that both treatment and assessment should be inclusive. It does not account, among other features, for cultural differences that can cause difficulties for ESL students (Fox, 2003; Fox & Cheng, 2007; Norton & Stein, 1998). Overall, English proficiency is a significant variable in ELL assessment.In addition to the BICS/CALP dist inction mentioned above, Bailey (2005) proposes that there is a language of tests that is a different Ã¢â¬Å"registerÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"discourse domain. Ã¢â¬ The use of such language creates a problem of Ã¢â¬Å"face validity. Ã¢â¬ Is the test actually testing what it is designed to test or is it a test of the language of tests? English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students around the world are assessed using many of the same measurements that are used to assess ELL students. EFL students are enrolled in programs in non-English contexts such as Japan where the language of the community is not English. They do not have ready access to native models of English that ELL students usually do. This is very much like the way students learn Latin in secondary school.It appears that EFL assessments are generally used to measure oral language ability such as the ACTFL mentioned previously. Our review of the assessment procedures and methods in use in KÃ¢â¬â12 schools in 12 school distr icts raised several issues that related to ESL learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ assessment that were not found in studies such as Bertrand (1994), so we present them here. First, we found that there was a need for a measure that would discriminate students with language pathologies and/or learning disabilities from those who only needed English instruction. District members also expressed the need for a reliable measure to sort out secondary studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ content knowledge and their linguistic knowledge.Lastly, they contended that assessment should be developed to isolate ESL studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ specific areas of weakness so that teachers could more effectively use them to guide instruction. Summary and Conclusions The use ELL or ESL is unfortunate because it masks the underlying complexity of the human beings included in the category. ELL is inaccurate as a term because native English-speaking adults continue to be English language learners well into old age. Perceptions and pedagogical prescripti ons are the most troubling aspects of the use of these terms. In article after article the ESL or ELL is used as though they represent a homogenous group of human beings.Pedagogical recommendations are made on the notion that they are a single group with the same skills and abilities. Of course, this is far from the truth. Our experience is that teachers use the term to represent all students who speak English as an additional language. In addition, they appear to perceive ESL students as human beings who have trouble learning to read (English). And this too, is far from the truth for some students, but not for others. ESL (ELL) is a term that should either be qualified when used or discarded as a general term. The assessment of ELL/ESL/EFL learners is a significant foundational process for teachers to determine the appropriate teaching and learning programs for their students from kindergarten to the mature adult level.ELL assessment traditionally includes measures of listening, sp eaking, reading, and writing. There are three basic kinds of assessment instruments. The first is purely instructional in that it is designed to indicate the level at which students should be placed for instruction. The second type of measure is designed to provide an estimate of proficiency related to norm groups and involves scores such as percentiles and NCEs. The third is designed to provide predictive information concerning how well a student will succeed academically. Unfortunately, it appears that most measures are based on native English models. Another difficulty is that studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ English proficiency has a profound effect on their ability to succeed on a test.It is often difficult for a student to succeed on a test when the language of the test is difficult or unknown to them. Some have noted that the language of tests is also unique. Recently, assessment measures have been computerized and some have been put on the Internet. This raises serious questions of access, especially for students from countries where access is difficult or non-existent. For example, we have been told that the cost of taking an online test in a country like Zimbabwe is prohibitive. Educators from many jurisdictions have borrowed the concept of accommodation from special education to make the assessment procedures fair to ELLs who differ in various ways from native English speakers.There is disagreement concerning the validity of test results as a result of accommodations since they are not often included in the norming procedures of the instruments. We have heard some opine that accommodation is not itself fair, and that the results of standardized assessment provide information about how well students will do in an English-speaking instructional setting. It has been recommended that assessment measures be constructed that are written in different first languages. Some have argued that the number of first languages in schools would make this an expensive and impractica l approach. In July 2009 the use of English-only assessment measures was upheld in a federal appeals court in California.It is clear from a review of existing assessment practices that school-based personnel use a wide variety of instruments and procedures. It is also clear that there is the belief that it is important to identify a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"English levelÃ¢â¬ for instructional purposes, but there is little agreement on how many levels should be identified. The precise process for determining a level is somewhat fuzzy, but it involves the interpretation of a variety of scores from a variety of tests. The research base concerning ELL assessment is not substantial. It focuses on measures originally designed for native English speakers. They do not do well generally on such measures. Indeed, they do not do well in school and a great number drops out, particularly from lower socioeconomic groups.The state of the art of assessment and instruction involving ELLs is extrem ely dire. The issues of ELL assessment needs urgent attention since ELLs are the most rapidly growing group in our schools. References ? Abedi, J. , Hofstetter, C. G. , & Lord, C. (2004). Assessment accommodations for English language learners: Implications for policy-based empirical research. Review of Educational Research, 74, 1-28. ? Al-Musawi, N. M. &. Al-Ansari, S. H. (1999). Test of English as a foreign language and first certificate of English tests as predictors of academic success for undergraduate students at the University of Bahrain. System, 27(3), 389-399. American Council for the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). (1983). ACTFL proficiency guidelines. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: ACTFL Materials Center. ? Bailey, A. L. (2005). Language analysis of standardized tests: Considerations in the assessment of English language learners. In Abedi, J. , Bailey, A. , Castellon-Wellington, M. , Leon, S. , & Mirocha, J. (Eds. ), The validity of administering large-scale content asse ssments to English language learners: An investigation from three perspectives (pp. 79-100). Los Angeles: Center for Research on Evaluation/National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESSR). Ballard, W. , Dalton, E. , & Tighe, P. (2001a). IPT I oral grades K-6 examinerÃ¢â¬â¢s manual. Brea, CA: Ballard & Tighe. ? Ballard, W. , Dalton, E. , & Tighe, P. (2001b). IPT I oral grades K-6 technical manual. Brea, CA: Ballard & Tighe. ? Bennett, R. E. , Braswell, J. , Oranje, A. , Sandene, B. , Kaplan, B. , & Yan, F. (2008). Does it matter if I take my mathematics test on computer? A second empirical study of mode effects in NAEP. The Journal of Technology, Learning and Assessment, 6(9), 1-40. ? Bertrand, J. E. (1994). Student assessment and evaluation. In Harp, B. (Ed. ), Assessment and evaluation for student centered learning (pp. 7-45). Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon. ? Black, O. , & William, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through cl assroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 141-148. ? Burt, M. K. , Dulay, H. C. , & Hernandez, E. (1976). Bilingual syntax measure. New York: Harcourt Brace Javonovich. ? Brigance, A. H. (1983). Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills II (CIBS II). North Billerica, MA: Curriculum Associates. ? Cambridge University Press. (2009). IELTS catalogue. Retrieved July 14, 2010, from http://www. cambridgeesol. org/. ? Centre for Canadian language benchmarks (CCLB). (2007). Canadian language benchmarks.Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://www. language. ca/display_page. asp? page_id=206. ? Center for Research on Education Diversity and Excellence. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ long-term academic achievement final report. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://www. crede. ucsc. edu/research/llaa/1. 1_final. html. ? Cummins, J. (1979a). Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age que stion and some other matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 19, 175-205. ? Cummins, J. (1979b). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children.Review of Educational Research, 49(2), 222-251. ? Cummins, J. (1981). Age on arrival and immigrant second language learning in Canada: A reassessment. Applied Linguistics, 2(2), 132-149. ? Cummins, J. (1983). Language proficiency and academic achievement. In Oller, J. W. (Ed. ), Issues in language testing research (pp. 108-129). Rowley, MA: Newbury House. ? Cummins, J. (2000). Language, power and pedagogy. Toronto, ON: Multilingual Matters. ? Cummins, J. , & Swain, M. (1986). Linguistic interdependence: A Central principle of bilingual education. In Cummins, J. & Swain, M. (Eds. ), Bilingualism in education (pp. 80-95). New York: Longman. ? Crawford, J. (2004).Educating English learners: Language diversity in the classroom (5th ed. ). Los Angeles: Bilingual Educational Services. ? Dunn, L. M. , & Dunn, D. M . (1997). Peabody picture vocabulary test. San Antonio, TX: Pearson. ? Educational Testing Service (ETS). (2009a). TOEFLÃ ® Internet-based Test (iBT). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://www. ets. org/portal/site/ets/menuitem. 1488512ecfd5b8849a77b13bc3921509/? vgnextoid=f138af5e44df4010VgnVCM10000022f95190RCRD&vgnextchannel=b5f5197a484f4010VgnVCM10000022f95190RCRD. ? Educational Testing Service (ETS). (2009b). TOEFLÃ ® Internet-based Test (iBT). Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://www. ets. org/Media/Tests/TOEFL/pdf/TOEFL_iBT_Score_Comparison_Tabl
Geographic location and Demography The Western part of Central Visayas, Philippines comprises the Province of Antique, Iloilo, Capiz and Aklan all located within the roughly triangular shaped island of Panay. shaped island of Panay Capiz is one of the six provinces in the Western Visayas found on the northeastern portion in the island of Panay. Shaped like an open palm, it is situated at the heart of the Philippine Archipelago at 11Ã ° 35Ã¢â¬ ² 0Ã¢â¬ ³ North latitude and 122Ã ° 45Ã¢â¬ ² 0Ã¢â¬ ³ East Longitude . The Province is bounded by the Sibuayan Sea on the North, where Roxas City and the six (6) coastal municipalities: Ivisan, Sapian, Panay, Pontevedra, Pres Roxas, and Pilar are wholly dependent on fishing for their existence. It is bounded on the South and Southeast by Iloilo Province, on the Southwest by the Province of Antique, and on the West and Northwest by the Province of Aklan. Aklan. The coast of Capiz sustains the vibrant fishing industry of the province. Its rich fishing grounds can be a basis for the claim of Capiz as the seafood capital of the Philippines. Roxas City, the provincial capital, where the largest in terms of population size Capiz has a population of 701,664 (2007 census). Among the sixteen municipalities and one city of Capiz, Roxas City, the provincial capital, has the largest population comprising 19.32 percent of the total provincial population Followed next by the municipalities of Tapaz (6.74 percent); Panay (6.21 percent); Dumarao (6.16 percent); and Pontevedra (6.13 percent). On the other hand, Sapian, Cuartero, Ivisan and Dumalaghave the smallest population with less than 4.0 percent each. Linguistic Identity Capiznon refers to the culture anguage and the people of Capiz province. The Capiznon speaks Kinaraya and Hiligaynon, with slightly different inflection compared to Ilonggo speakers in Iloilo. The towns of Ivisan and Sapian of Capiz which are already near Aklan speak Ilonggo mixed with some aklanon words. Those in the interiormost town of Tapaz, Capiz,Ã¢â¬â home of the mountain people (Bukidnon)Ã¢â¬â speak Kinaray-a. with some aklanon words. Those in the nteriormost town of Tapaz, Capiz,Ã¢â¬â home of the mountain people(Bukidnon)Ã¢â¬â speak Kinaray-a Myths, Folk Beliefs and Practices The early Panaynon believed in many gods like Bulalakaw, a bird which Gods like Bulalakaw, a bird which looks ike a peacock and could cause illness was said to live in the islands sacred mountain called Madya-as. Mediators to the gods, also said to be the first priests, were; Bangutbanwa, who prayed for good harvest and an orderly universe; Mangindalon, who interceded for sick persons and prayed for the punishment of enemies.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Measurements Paper - Essay Example Finally the paper concludes with the statement of present research's variables and describe the types of reliability and validity that is intended to be used in respect of such variables. The target object of the proposed research is to evaluate service quality performance versus customer expectations of the same. A variable is a data that can assume one or more attributes called its values. The level of measurement refers to the relationship among the values that are assigned to the attributes for a variable. Level of measurement is important as it helps researcher to decide how to interpret the data from that variable. It also helps the researcher to decide what statistical analysis is most appropriate on the values that were assigned. As is typically posited four levels of measurements are identified i.e nominal(here the numerical values just "name" the attribute uniquely; no ordering of the cases is implied),ordinal( here measurement of the attributes can be rank-ordered and distances between attributes do not have any meaning),interval(in such measures distances between attributes do have meaning) and ratio(in such measurement there is always an absolute zero that is meaningful; this means that you can construct a meaningful fraction (or ratio) with a ratio variable).(Trochim,2006-a). Th ese measurements have to be reliable and valid in an integrated manner and based on true score theory of measurement. to ensure high quality (Trochim, 2006-b). Unobtrusive measures are measures that don't require the researcher to intrude in the research context. Direct and participant observation requires that the researcher be physically present.Reseracher presence can affect respondent behavior and response. Three kinds of unobtrusive measures are normally used in social science research: Indirect Measures, Content Analysis and Secondary Analysis of Data(Trochim,2006-c).In short, unobtrusive measurement work to reduce the bias caused by researcher's presence but result in lesser control over the data. The earlier paper on relationships had identified the primary constructs as: reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, tangibles, and business success in relation to services' quality. Construct validity refers to the degree to which inferences can legitimately be made from the operationalizations in your study to the theoretical constructs on which those operationalizations were based. Construct validity involves generalizing from the program or measures to the concept of such program or measures (Trochim, 2006-d). Threats to construct validity may be caused by not properly defining operationally the constructs; using only one version of your treatment; inadequacy of using a single measure to look at a particular concept; interactions between different treatments; interaction of the testing and the treatment; unanticipated consequences etc.( Driebe ) It is posited here that answers to the proposed
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Issues of Our TimesInternational - Essay Example Information from the CQ Researcher online database, from Leda HartmanÃ¢â¬â¢s article shows that sectarian conflicts between the two groups are almost as old as the religion itself. Centuries ago, in most countries, the two groups co-existed in peace, but this soon changed into a full-scale violence during last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s democracy movement in the Arab spring and when the U.S invaded Iraq. According to Cornell, there are up to 85-90% of Sunni Muslims in the world and 10-15% of Shiite Muslims.ii Most Shiites live in many parts of the world but majority of them can be found in countries such as Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan and Iran among others. It is important to note that the Shiite Muslims in these countries are either the majority or a minority group with a lot of influence on powerful political positions, or none at all. The Sunnis, on the other hand are many, with large populations in countries such as India, North African states such as Libya, Egypt and Morocco. The situation between the Sunni and Shiite Muslims is not only about theology and history as previously mentioned in the introduction, but also about competition for power, a lot of privilege in some politicians from either of the group also intensifies the distrust and hostility. In page 114 of CornellÃ¢â¬â¢s book, the sectarian division between the Sunnis and Shiites has taken very many centuries to develop. When Prophet Mohammad died, there was a problem among the young Muslims in regard to the one to succeed the Prophet.iii Disagreements emerged in the community eventually, resulting to these two groups. Additionally, the disagreement between the two groups soon developed into divisions related to politics, the ritual practices and theological doctrines. Hence, the two have always had different views leading to hostility, open conflicts and coexistence in other instances.iv In the
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Business Law,law of tort - Case Study Example Furthermore, the statement 'opponents say that he puts the keys of high powered cars back into the hands of drink drivers is ironical and it is meant to lower his reputation as a celebrity lawyer.' Again look at the words 'stitch him up' as used by the police officers. These words can be interpreted by any ordinary person. The words should not be taken in their ordinary meaning in order to find defamation in them but from the inference which would be drawn by the ordinary person who read the words. i) Substantial damages: The allegations on the newspaper are enormous especially that Nick Freeman was arrested on conspiracy to pervert the course of justice in a bid to protect drunk drivers. It is apparent that these allegations will substantially affect his profession. He should therefore sue the company substantial damages. 2 Special damages: The article would be read by several clients of Nick and his several would-be clients. They may refuse to enter into contracts with him in future. This is likely to financially affect his career in the future. He can the therefore seek special damages for that matter. In the case of Byre v Deare, the plaintiff was a member of a golf club. Some gaming machines were removed from the club following the complaints made to police. Then some typewritten lampoons were placed where the machines were installed and it read a follow:- For many years upon this spot, You heard the sound of the merry bell, Those who were rash and those who were not, Lost and made a spot of cash, But he who gave the game away, May be Byrne in hell rue the day. 3 An action for defamation by the plaintiff did not succeed as it was held that a right thinking person would not view the words as defamatory. ii) Another remedy available to Nick is injunction. Since he is anxiously eager to prevent further publications by the newspaper, he can apply for an injunction. This would compel the court to order the company to stop further publication of information concerning him. 4 Case 2 Fiona Shackleton is currently employed by Payre Hick Beach which was not her employer at the time of the case between Prince of Wales and Diana. But the Evening Standard has gone ahead to print a false statement that it was Payre Hicks Beach firm as a whole which conducted the case when the truth is that it was in fact Farrar's. 5 Fiona Shackleton shall have to proof the following:- i) Justification: - in order for her to successfully sue the defendants, Fiona Shackleton must justify that the words so printed injured her reputation as a lawyer. For that matter, she should argue that these printings would effect a similar case before her, that of Sin Paul Mc Carthey v Lady Mills - Mc Marthey. ii) Reference to the plaintiff: - That the words so printed referred to her. Though in actual sense, there is nowhere her name is mentioned, only the firm's name. She is the one who represented the case into E. Hulton and Co. v Jones. A newspaper published an article that the plaintiff was accused of staying with a woman in France. The defendants alleged that they had invented the name i.e. there was
Monday, August 26, 2019
Management Report on a - - Case Study Example Table of Contents: Sl. No. Particulars Pg. No. 1 Introduction 4 2 Outline a set of values typical for the organizational culture of a well-established small business 5 3 Current business environment for existing business in homeland and world over 7 4 SWOT analysis of newly proposed solar powered and heating units 8 5 Guidelines and directions for the proposed business plan 11 6 Organizational chart which best suits the diversified organization 13 7 Conclusion 14 8 References 14 Introduction: Wobble & Strait Engineering Ltd. is a well-established small business catering to the needs of rural, forestry and fishery companies. The Company was established in 1946 and was mainly family managed. It currently, employs 21 staff in various cadres, including Stanley the Managing Director, to support the purpose of the business. Candy, his heir is now inclined to get involved in the business matters and understands that there are questions regarding the financial soundness of the business in th e present scenario of rising New Zealand dollar as against the US one. The high dollar value is forcing many forestry and fishery companies to defer their requirements with the result that the demand for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products is getting thinned out day by day. ... 2. Consider a real current business environment for the existing business in the homeland and the world over. 3. Conduct a SWOT analysis of newly proposed solar powered energy and heating units. 4. Propose some guidelines and directions for the proposed business plan and 5. Project an organizational chart which best suits the new diversified organization. Outline a set of values typical for the organizational culture of a well-established small business: For any business to be a going concern, it needs to be economically viable while ensuring that the work standards are quality ensured for guaranteed future prospects. As such, it needs to develop Vision and Mission Statements which can lead it towards the goal orientation of profit maximization. This goal can be achieved only when an encouraging culture is established in the organization. Organizational culture is dependent on the values it professes towards it customers, members, manager to staff and all other related inter-personal associations. Thus, a set of values which are like a bible to the organization have to be assimilated which need to be revisited to ensure that no severe deviations occur in the activity process. W&S, being a semi-service oriented organization, has developed similar values (related attitudes) basing on which, it has developed all these years. A recollection of those values and focusing on newly required areas which were overseen in the previous years is imperative for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success in the future: Having a Pro-active Attitude: The employees of an organization should be enthusiastic and believe in its purpose. They should be confident that the goals of the organization are achievable and whenever there is any slack in the business, the
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Sexual Relations - Essay Example The mention of virtue is ridiculed, and even the word itself has fallen out of favor" (1928). Most of what we are seeing these days is a loss of virtue, of family values and religious beliefs. These are the exact same things ignorance to which is leading us into social disarray. So realizing the limitation and strength of faith of people in general in taking initiative towards self redemption, I believe that they need to be comprehensively informed in the subject of sexual education, primarily to equip them to make better decisions and safe guard their health. No matter how much help we take from religion to propagate abstinence, although if we would have adhered to our respective religions and be good practitioners, things wouldn't be in such dire straits, but publics' general tendency is to turn a deaf year to such sermons. Preventing access to sexual health information has been counterproductive, and trying to force feed abstinence through misinformation breeds frustration, mistrust and rebelliousness (Abstinence-only programs, 2006). My focus would be the student lot, specifically the ones undergoing graduate or undergraduate programs. The reason to this is that students younger than this age group are generally not aware of their sexuality, and are mostly devoid of sexual temptation which leads to intercourse. Age group elder then this is generally more aware, although not much can be expected out of them in moral issues, but they would definitely act more responsibly and carefully. So the students in graduate and under graduate level are a group in limbo, since these students are now aware of their sexuality and are tempted to experiment, they are prone to make mistakes and regret later since they are less aware of ECPs and STDs. Literature Review Abstinence-only sexuality programs Abstinence is a virtue which cannot be practiced individually, it is an evident truth seen throughout history, this is ever so evident in teen students, until and less abstinence is inculcated in children by stick. Conducting programs which preach teen students to abstain from intercourse has little effect, as it is only helpful in delaying the inevitable for just an iota more. In fact, whenever these teens succumb to the worldly desires, they are ever more vulnerable in contracting sexually transmitted diseases because they are dangerously ill informed in the use of contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases. Students who promise to refrain exhibit a higher inclination towards unsafe sex as compared to students who don't challenge their will power to subdue their covetousness (Bearman and Brueckner, 2001; Walters, 2005). The proof to failure to desist became evermore apparent in a latest study held countrywide where sophomores underwent abstinence regimen and some did not, and the reports indicated that there was no proportional difference in the endeavors taken towards sexual experiences ("Study:Abstinence," 2007; Trenholm et al., 2007). Comprehensive
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Creating A Social Program - Coursework Example The causes of Fibromyalgia are not clear, but it is clear that it is a disorder with a number of possible causes. It seems sufferers have all experienced stressful or traumatic events, such as car accidents, repetitive injuries, illness, and certain diseases that can accompany the discomfort. These may include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitus (spinal arthritis) (National Institute of Health 2007). Scientists believe there maybe a genetic factor involved in the disorder and women who have a family member with the disorder are more likely to have it themselves. Researchers once believed the debilitating pain reported by Fibromyalgia sufferers was the result of the accompanying depression they experience, however, recent brain scan research has shown an increase in blood flow to the areas of the brain that detect pain intensity (Anderson 2008). Common limitations of patients suffering from Fibromyalgia include exertion and mobility limitatio ns (pushing, pulling, lifting, etc.), extremely reduced energy and stamina levels, cognitive deficits, and the need for a restricted environment due to sensitivities to cold, light, noise and changes in air pressure (Contreras 2003). Fibromyalgia can be very difficult to diagnose and presently there are no specific tests that can be used to determine a clear diagnosis. For this reason, some patients may require several doctor visits and tests to be performed prior to receiving a correct diagnosis. The American College of Rheumatology currently presents the standards for diagnosing Fibromyalgia after other factors have been ruled out. This diagnostic standard includes checking for a certain number (11-18) of tender points on the patients body. Because the complaints and symptoms of Fibromyalgia can be vague and vary between patients, physicians tend to put patients through repeated evaluations prior to diagnosis (Elrod 1997). This extensive diagnostic
Friday, August 23, 2019
Ethics in Entrepreneurship - Essay Example But in performing such type of operations, Ethics is extremely essential. It is known as the philosophy that an entrepreneur or business organization adheres in its dealings. This means, each and every business organization or entrepreneur comprises of certain rules and principles that its employees need to follow at the time of tackling its operations. Otherwise, the entire business organization might lead to downfall of productivity and profit margin. Apart from Ethics, Morality is another essential term offering high value towards business. Morality is mainly concerned with varied types of values, norms and beliefs that help an individual to detect the right or wrong actions. Thus, the behavior of an individual is highly influenced by such values, beliefs and norms that vary from person to person. With the help of such behaviors, an entrepreneur or individual enhances the prospects of a business organization. So, such values are extremely essential for an entrepreneur. Discussion The characteristics of Ethics in business are as follows: Ethical decisions differ from one person to another. It is mainly due to different views, values, norms and beliefs of varied types of individual. However, each and every types of ideas and values need to be apt for the customers or employees of the organization. Ethical decisions need to be at par with the cost incurred and the profit margin of the business. In order to do so, the entrepreneur needs to offer the products and services in such types of prices to its customers. The decisions of the employees in a business are voluntary their own deeds. So, it is essential for the employees to present ethical decisions that might prove effective for the business in long run (Shaw, 2010). Ethics is a trait of human being that needs to be ethical. Otherwise, being an employee of an organization, he might not be able to take any type of ethical decisions. Not only in his professional life, but ethics is also essential in oneÃ¢â¬â ¢s private life. If he or she fails to take the ethical decisions, then he or she might never prosper in life in future era. Side by side, due to an unethical decision, not only the image or productivity of the organization might get reduced but also the reputation may decline. The range of customers might get reduced slowly and slowly leading to downfall of the entire profit margin of the organization. Thus, the rate of loyalty over the brand or the entrepreneurial image might get faded among the public day by day. So, it is extremely essential to maintain a strong status and supremacy in the market for the brand and its products on the basis of ethical decisions. Only then, an entrepreneur might prosper. Ethics is a type of characteristics feature of a human being that varies from one individual to another. Moreover, working in a group or an organization, the ethical views and norms of an individual also gets highly influenced by others. Some of the aspects by which, ethics within an organization gets affected are stated below: Religion- as numerous individual works within an organization or under an entrepreneur, some due to diverse religious traditions and norms, ethical decisions also get affected. Thus, sometimes, due to religious variations, the decision making of the individual gets influenced to a certain extent. But still, serving the human being in a best way is the only view
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Management, Leadership and Change assignment 2 - Essay Example According to Aluya (2009), successful transformation would require 70 Ã¢â¬â 80 percent leadership and only 10 Ã¢â¬â 30 percent management. Failure to plan is planning to fail. The foremost reasons following the botched change process is the opposition to change (Bean, 2014). A triumphant change principal will engage the members in the change process, and with this participation, the change will be probable. The purpose of the report was comprehensively to scrutinize the transformational leadership that permitted Nokia Corporation to remain a market leader for decades. Another mystifying issue that inspired the research was the fact that Nokia products were facing stiff competition from their close competitors like Samsung yet it was many older than them. It should be settled that Nokia, having been established earlier, should have conquered the market due to customer constancy and high excellence merchandise that are customer-tailored, but this was not the case. There has been the change of leadership from transformational to Democratic leadership style. The research tried to demystify the impact that different leadership styles in organisations in terms of morale of employees, the relationship in the group and the consequent effects of changing from one leadership style to another. The research had a purpose of indicating how beneficial transformation leadership was to the company and showed why the change of direction to Democratic led to market failure of a once giant company. Collectively, the report exemplified that failure to cope with change leads to enormous letdown. 6 Transformational leadership has pragmatically been the preference for extenuating change in a managerial space. An organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s survival in the current economic landscape entirely depends on how suitably and adequately it assumes its strategies. The zenith of managers should be well informed of the changes that occur in the industry and rapidly conforms
Columbus Ohio Essay Do helium filled footballs travel further than footballs filled with ordinary air? Two experiments were conducted by members of the media in Columbus, Ohio to investigate this question. The experiment conducted using two different footballs, one of which was filled with helium while the other was filled with ordinary air. Each football was kicked four times with the wind and four times against the wind. The results of this study seem striking, the lighter helium filled football went much farther when the wind was at the kickers back, but did not perform so well into the wind. The helium filled football traveled an average of ten yards farther with the wind and an average of five yards less against the wind than its air filled counterparts. This all came about in1993, Auburn University played Mississippi State University in football. Auburn was set up to punt the football. The football was kicked and eyed in disbelief as it sailed an estimated seventy one yards through the air. Shocked, Mississippi State coaches claimed the football was filled with helium in order to produce such a kick. The football was immediately seized by officials and was later tested to see if it had been filled with helium. No helium was found in the football. A single outlier could account for the observed differences. Observing differences in small scales studies are often attributable to chance, if there is considerable variability in the individual results. To determine if there is considerable variability in the data or if there are outliers, people would like to see the actual data. It is difficult to evaluate the results of a study of you are not given the actual date. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if any randomization was used in the study. One would want to control for difference in the footballs perhaps by using several footballs. Mostly all the kicker for both helium and air filled footballs show a lot of variability with greater variability with the helium filled football than the air filled footballs. They mentioned in the histogram that the pair of kicks comparing a given trial might be viewed as a matched pair. It is often valuable to examine the difference in the pair of values comprising the matched pair. It is hard to see that there is any marked advantageÃ to kicking a football filled with helium versus one filled with ordinary air. There is weak evidence of a slight advantage for the helium filled football. The results do not substantiate the study, which seem to suggest a much clearer advantage to the helium filled football. There does not seem to be much evidence that a helium filled football outperforms an air filled football. The knowledge could effect the way the kicker kicked the football, kicking the helium filled football more smoothly than the air filled ball when the wind was at his back, while lunging at the helium filled football when kicking into the wind. A smoother rhythm generally produces a longer kick. After hearing all the results, skeptics from The Columbus Dispatch decided to conduct their own experiment with help of a team of physicists and chemists from The Ohio State University, by doing this experiment they learned that the kicks for both the helium and the ordinary air filled footballs show a lot of variability with the helium filled football than the ordinary air filled football. In the histogram the distributions of both are slightly skewed to the left but do have a rough bell shape. The center of the helium filled football data seems a bit larger than that for the air filled football. The difference is small and the variability is the data makes it hard to assert that there is any marked advantage to kicking the helium filled football.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Microprocessor Based Control of Traffic Lights Abstract: Due to suitable control measures strategies which can be countered traffic congestion in urban road freeway networks leads to degrades the network infrastructure accordingly reduced throughput. Due to traffic congestion defining the main reasons for infrastructure deterioration is defined, overview of implemented proposed control strategies is provided for these areas: urban road networks, freeway networks, route guidance. The impact of various control actions strategies are illustrated briefly Selected application results, obtained from either simulation studies or field implementations. Microprocessor based control of traffic light are programmed for automatically run and change their alternatively light automatically. The microprocessor connected to different electronics devices i.e. traffic light controller, a video camera, an electronic display board, compression circuit an I/O interface, a traffic flow detector connected to the central traffic control computer through t he DSL. DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Loop. A traffic light control information transmission device both are compromised by a microprocessor on the cross road. DLS is used for send the information about the public or news of the central traffic control computer. The control signals, traffic, public information or can go through the DLS to the microprocessor. The microprocessor can control the traffic light display all the information on the electronic display board. An electronic display board is used for displaying the information that was send by DSP. The traffic flow data of the cross roads can be accessed by the traffic flow detector the video camera transmitted back to the central traffic control computer. Introduction Old system works on trigger mechanism. But today many traffic light systems operate on the timing mechanism. Timing mechanism changes the light after a fixed intervals of time. In an intersection of roads the invention that is mainly used to control traffic lights relates to an intelligent traffic light control system. Traffic signal systems will need to address many issues in the next millennium, spanning a broad range of technical, social, political boundaries. The presence or absence of vehicles within certain range is sensed by the system developed by setting the appropriate duration for the traffic signals to react accordingly. An intelligent traffic light system senses the presence or absence of vehicles reacts accordingly due to that conditions. A manual input device, an enforced switching device an intelligent detecting device the invention relates to an intelligent traffic light control system comprising a microprocessor, these three devices are responsible wherein the mi croprocessor is used for controlling traffic lights. The idea behind intelligent traffic systems is that drivers will not spend unnecessary time waiting for the traffic lights to change. The system to achieve a periodic switching the status of on/off of a traffic light is controlled through a microprocessor. An intelligent traffic system detects traffic in many different way. Trigger mechanism is responsible for older system that means older system are works on this mechanism. for inputting control parameters of traffic light to the microprocessor the manual input device is used, for carrying a preferentially direct operation the enforced switching device is use. The enforced switching device are also used for the direct control of traffic light. Current traffic systems react to motion to trigger the light changes. Once the infrared object detector picks up the presence of a car, a switch causes the lights to change. We need to understate the function of traffic signals so that we can improve driving habits by controlling the speed in order to reduce the number of associated traffic accidents. To reduce the waiting time of each lane of the cars also to maximize the total number of cars that can cross an intersection the Intelligent Traffic Signal Simulator is designed and developed. The control parameters cannot be automatically adjusted by the system according to traffic flows in each direction this is the shortcoming of prior technique. The more number of drivers who know about the operation of traffic signals, the less frustrated they are going to be while waiting for the lights to change. They have less frustration while waiting for traffic lights It means that the traffic control in an intersection of roads will be not in a best state at all times. The Traffic Signal System Consists Of Three Important Parts. The first part is the controller or we can say that the brain of the traffic system. The selection timing of traffic movements in accordance to the varying demands of traffic signal that controls by a computer controls as registered to the controller unit by sensors. The second part is the signal visualization or in another words it is signal face. Controlling traffic in a single direction consist of one or more signal sections are provided by Signal faces which are part of a signal head. These usually comprise of solid red, yellow, green lights. The third part is the detector or sensor. Presence of vehicles is indicated by the sensor or detector. One of the technologies, which are used today, in the pavement at intersections wire loops are placed. Electrical inductance caused by a vehicle passing over or standing over the wire loop is change therefore they are activated Their Demand With the increase in urbanization to operate our roadway systems with maximum efficiency traffic congestion comes a greater demand. New technology, such as traffic-responsive closed loop systems or adaptive traffic signal systems using advanced surveillance traffic management centers, will become increasingly critical for city, county, state, organizations to meet transportation needs. Emergence Of Microprocessor-Based Traffic Signal Control In early 1960s computers were introduced to traffic signal systems. The first computerized traffic signal control system was installed in Canada in 1963. Hardware software standardization efforts were first initiated In 1970s, when microprocessors are common , the developments progressed at a relatively modest pace. The philosophy that controllers would provide a basic set of features standard connectors the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) TS1 standard was based . The concept of the new platform was that traffic signal controllers should not be based on static technology (like the Model170 specification) but on widely used commercial standards, allowing new technology to be adopted rapidly Technical Challenges Traffic signal research has been conducted in two distinct areas: roadside equipment analytical-type operations research. The research on roadside equipment has performed by the Government agencies vendors virtually. Similarly, the research in analytical-type operations are performed virtually. The roadside equipment analytical models although significant advancements have been made, neither area has been particularly closely coordinated with the other. Many of the following research issues fall outside the typical DOT, commercial, university organizational structure, but they show considerable promise for improving the operation of traffic signal systems. System Integration Research Due to past research, government agencies vendors in considered isolation have perfected systems that do an excellent job of meeting todays needs, but do not provide the building blocks for cost-effectively implementing integrated systems manufactured by a variety of vendors. It means that the system manufactured by the vendors do not get the basic building block from the government. Similarly, because many of the assumptions made by the universities developing the models do not reflect the technical limitations or traffic engineering conventions imposed by modern controllers many of the promising control algorithms proposed over the years have never been implemented. Advanced Transportation Controller Adaptive controller adjust time or re-time every 30 sec. A computer is used to control an operation by monitoring readings from sensors sending control signals when necessary. The concept of an ATC was initiated in 1989. Caltrans prepared a report documenting some of the deficiencies of the Model 170 controller recommended a 3U VME-based platform using OS-9 (12). The concept of the new platform was that traffic signal controllers should not be based on static technology (like the Model170 specification) but on widely used commercial standards, allowing new technology to be adopted rapidly. The initial specification developed by Caltrans was called the Model 2070. Ideally, new technology would be incorporated into the Model 2070 traffic signal controller at a rate similar to that observed in the desktop computing market. As interest in the standard development effort broadened, more public agencies began participating, an ATC standard emerged that is even less dependent on the proc essor operating system than the Model 2070. Process control means automatic control of an industrial processÃ¢â¬ ¦ Characteristics of process control sensors are main part of the traffic light based on the microprocessor .It is a real-time operation input from sensors is processed It is an example of the use of feedback if it is out of balance the sensor input is used to adjust the process control signals are sent back almost immediately. the timing of each part of the process and the computer usually controls the supply of materials Some more sophisticated systems allow for learning to take place. The computer remembers how the best results were obtained attempts to reproduce those results Sensors Sensors are the main part of any traffic signal system, yet are viewed by many as the weakest link in developing better traffic control systems. Sensing needs include so many detection train detection, nonferrous bicycle detection, emergency vehicle detection, transit vehicle detection, pedestrian detection, vehicle detection and queue estimation. Reliability must increase costs decrease to facilitate widespread use not only must new sensing technology be developed. Furthermore, standards need to emerge for integrating these sensors into traffic signal systems. The standard practice for bringing any sensor information into a traffic signal controller is via discrete logic (contact open/contact closed), which is limiting needs to improve. Summary Of The Invention In order to overcome above shortcomings of the prior technique, the invention provides an intelligent traffic light control system. The control system can automatically adjust the traffic light control parameters according to the changes of traffic flow in different directions, thereby increasing the traffic efficiency of intersection of roads achieving a best control for traffic. The technical solution of the invention is that: an intelligent traffic light control system comprises a microprocessor, a manual input device, an enforced switching device an intelligent detecting device, wherein the microprocessor is used for controlling traffic lights, the manual input device is used for inputting control parameters of traffic light to the microprocessor, the enforced switching device is used for carrying out a preferentially direct operation, the intelligent detecting device includes one or more panoramic cameras an intelligent controller, wherein the one or more panoramic cameras are used for capturing real-time traffic flow images of each direction, the intelligent is used for receiving the real-time traffic flow images of each direction through a video capture board, identifying vehicles on each lane of each road, identifying status of driving stopping of each vehicle, counting the length of queue of vehicles in each lane from the status of driving stoppin g of each vehicle sending an instruction for modifying traffic light control parameters to the microprocessor according to a preset program. The microprocessor modifies the traffic light control parameters after receiving the instruction. Provided with an intelligent detecting device, this system can estimate the jamming condition of each road according to the length of queue of driving or stopping vehicles on each road, make a best control mode using a preset program by adjusting switching order switching time of traffic lights to adapt to the actual traffic condition, thereby increasing traffic efficiency of an intersection of roads, reducing traffic jam of each road in each direction. That is beneficial to the normal traffic on roads, in particular to morning peak evening peak of traffic, as the main flow directions of the mass vehicles in morning peak evening peak are different. Provided with one or more panoramic cameras, the intelligent detecting device can effectively ca pture images of traffic jam condition in each direction, thereby simplifying the device ensuring the control effect at the same time. It is therefore a primary object of the invention to provide a traffic light control information transmission device that applies the existing broadb network to transmit data between the central traffic control computer the microprocessors of the cross roads to avoid the installation of the cables save the construction cost. In order to achieve the objective set forth, a traffic light control information transmission device in accordance with the present invention comprises a microprocessor on the cross road, the microprocessor further connects to a traffic light controller, an electronic display board, a video camera, a compression circuitry, an I/O interface, a traffic flow detector connected to the central traffic control computer through the DSL (Digital Subscriber Loop). The control signals, traffic, public information or news of the central traffic control computer can go through the DSL to the microprocessor; the microprocessor can control the traffic light display all the information on the electronic display board. The traffic flow data of the cross roads can be accessed by the traffic flow detector the video camera transmitted back to the central traffic control computer. Application Of Traffic Models Many modeling procedures techniques have been tried over the years have achieved varying levels of acceptance use. These models can be classified as macroscopic or microscopic. Macroscopic models are based on average flow rates average signal timings. They are particularly useful for signal system timing design software because they provide efficient procedures for formulating objective functions used in optimization logic. In the past decade, many of the macroscopic models have incorporated more detail to account for actuated signals coordination between them. However, these macroscopic models only provide analytical estimates of average system performance do not provide insight into the actual signal system operation, particularly during non steady-state conditions such as emergency preemption or timing plan transitions. Microscopic models are based on car-following theory cycle-by-cycle signal times. These models have significant potential to evaluate visualize alternative control concepts for traffic signal systems because they consider the car-following dynamics of traffic streams they can model many of the characteristics of advanced systems such as coordinated actuated controllers. These microscopic simulation procedures can be used to analyze tune coordinated-actuated systems directly, because they consider a majority of the parameters used in modern, coordinated-actuate signal systems. However, microscopic models. Traffic Control Concepts Traffic control concepts for isolated intersections basically fall into two basic categories: 1. Pre-Timed Signal Control Under these conditions, the signal assigns right-of-way at an intersection according to a predetermined schedule. The sequence of right-of-way (phases), the length of the time interval for each signal indication in the cycle is fixed, based on historic traffic patterns. No recognition is given to the current traffic demand on the intersection approaches unless detectors are used. The major elements of pre-timed control are fixed cycle length, fixed phase length, number sequence of phases 2. Traffic-Actuated Signal Control Traffic-actuated control of isolated intersections attempts to adjust green time continuously, , in some cases, the sequence of phasing. These adjustments occur in accordance with real-time measures of traffic demand obtained from vehicle detectors placed on one or more of the approaches to the intersection. The full range of actuated control capabilities depends on the type of equipment employed the operational requirements. Conclusion An intelligent traffic light system had successfully been designed developed. Increasing the number of sensors to detect the presence of vehicles can further enhance the design of the traffic light system. Another room of improvement is to have the infrared sensors replaced with an imaging system/camera system so that it has a wide range of detection capabilities, which can be enhanced ventured into a perfect traffic system.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Organisational Dynamics The Times Of India Business Essay The Times of India is a daily, English language broadsheet of India. It has been certified as being the most selling and widest circulated English daily in the world by the Audit Bureau of Circulation. The average circulation of The Times of India for the year 2010 was 34.3 lakh copies. The Times of India has a readership of 70.3 lakh readers daily, as per the Indian Readership Surveys 2010 figures. It is hence the top English daily in India in terms of readership as well. The Times of India has been in existence since 1838, when it was established as the Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce, headquartered in Mumbai. In the mid-19th century, it was renamed as The Times of India. After independent, the newspaper passed into the hands of the Dalmiya family, and later went to the Sahu Jain family, who are the current owners. Todays The Times of India is published by Bennett, Coleman and Company Limited (BCCL). This media house also publishes various other newspapers, such as Economic Times, Mumbai Mirror, Maharashtra Times, etc. Culture of Times of India Given below is the culture of Times of India newspaper is described based on interviews conducted with employees of the organization. Bureaucratic: It is gathered from these interviews that TOI is a bureaucratic organization. There are formalised rules, procedures and processes in place to manage the organisation. The division of roles is formal and complete. There are clearly defined hierarchies as well, with a clear line of authority. This is primarily because it is a big organisation, and having commonly established practises makes managing it easier. Less propensity to risk taking: The organization does not believe in taking big risks, or chances that could mar the image of the organization. The employees are encouraged to conform to fixed codes of conduct and play safe, rather than thinking out of the box. Experimentation is therefore not a part of the organizational culture. Rigidity: In keeping with its bureaucratic structure, the organization follows an established and rigid way of functioning. It is hierarchical, and there are strict rules, regulations, codes of conduct and job profiles, so that every employee has a very specific job description and the areas of overlap are also defined. Hence, there is very little room to allow for individual cases or issues that the employee may have. This rigidity also makes the organisation less open to experimentation or change. Individuals, not teams: The work of departments, and within the department, each individual, is clearly outlines. Hence, because every employee has a differentiated job, the focus is on individual performances and roles rather than a team is an integral part of the organization. Also, most of the jobs are such that only one person can do them at a time-only one person can write an article, conduct an interview or do a graphic. However, despite this division of labour, the final product should look like one. Ethics held supreme: Ethics are valued above everything else. TOI has a Journalistic Code of conduct that deals with ethics. Any violations of this code are dealt with severely. The paper has a huge reputation to protect in the market, and its current status is primarily due to this reputation. Task oriented: The newspaper industry is highly volatile. Employees readily change jobs. The contract system is operational, and hence changing jobs is easy. Further, there are constantly new media options, and employees have more and more offers from outside. Hence, the focus at TOI is on the task and not the employee. Essentially, the position and the job are more important than the person occupying the post. This is interestingly seen in the way that the HR addresses employees: By their designation (position) first, and then their name. This order speaks a lot. Large power distance: Because the organizational structure is hierarchical, there is a large power distance between employees at higher levels and their subordinates. Power at higher levels is acquired through experience, and the inequality in power is seen as acceptable. Further, the subordinates almost never interact with their much higher-ups. Conformity: The culture is conserving in nature as it encourages conformity to already established norms and values. This ties in with other elements of the organisational culture as well, namely focus on playing it safe rather than experimentation and the rigid and bureaucratic structure of the organisation. Less openness: There is less openness and confrontation within the organization as employees are not very comfortable with expressing themselves to their superiors. Further, the organisational culture encourages that conflicts be resolved through diplomacy and tact rather than open confrontation. Confidentiality valued: This is also an important characteristic of the culture of TOI. Confidentiality and mutual commitments are honoured in the internal and external dealings of the organization. The employees who were interviewed refused to share the evaluation processes that are carried out within the organization. Traditions and rituals: TOI, being an old and established organisation, has a lot of traditions. These include events such as celebration of festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Holi and Makar Sankrant. The organisation also builds its culture using stories and narrations from the past, which embody the TOI culture. Inter-departmental distance: There is a large distance between the departments and also, the various newspaper publications. The editorial and business sides of the newspaper are constantly in conflict due to their seemingly contrasting roles. Less politics: Unlike most large organisations, TOI does not have a lot of petty politics at play. This is primarily because the promotions happen on basis of seniority and experience in the organisation, and are not subjective. Appraisals also happen through more than one person, and hence are not completely one-sided and prone to bias. Also, since the organisations culture focuses on the profile and not the person, the importance of personal politics is greatly reduced. Autonomy: TOI has clearly defined roles and profiles for all its employees; hence division of labour is complete. Within their designated roles, employees are given a fairly free hand with quite a lot of autonomy. The editors and superiors are available for consultation or collaboration, but the employees are encouraged to get the work done themselves. They can also make key decisions related to their roles. Information flows freely: Due to the large organisational size, employees are not always consulted in decisions-the decision making happens at the top and is not participatory. Even so, employees are always informed of decisions, events, change that is imminent, etc. TOI, as a media house, has good intra-organisational communication channels as well-by means of an intranet, e-fliers, in-house newsletter, etc. TOI Mission Statement: To be the leading provider of news, by providing timely, accurate and multi-dimensional news. To be the first paper the reader reads today and every day, by delivering consistently high standards of journalism. Functional aspects of culture: Organisational pride: The members of the group take pride in the organisation; it gives them a sense of identity for organization members. This increases loyalty to the organisation. Less politics: This is a functional aspect of the culture, because it helps deliver consistently high standards of journalism. Politics often leads to bickering, gossip, formation of factions, partiality, etc. As a result, often the best person is not chosen for a task due to bias in the selection process, or there is unnecessary conflict forming between individuals and groups. High levels of politics make the work environment extremely volatile, and are unwelcoming for new employees. Politics also discounts the importance of good and hard work, merit and dedication, and encourages a culture of power play, schemes and sucking up. Control and uniformity: Culture serves as a sense making and control mechanism that guides and shapes the attitudes and behaviour of employees. Autonomy: Autonomy is a functional part of the organisational culture because it helps achieve the mission of timely news. Employees are empowered to act autonomously within their designated roles, without the constant interference of their colleagues or superiors. This makes the delivery extremely fast and efficient, and timely. Diversity and multiple perspectives: TOI seeks to be a media mega mart that informs the customer, creates community value, delights the smart shopper, provides cutting-edge solutions to the advertiser, and believes in the magic of the idea.Ã This is ensured by diversity in the employees of the organisation, and helps achieve the multi-dimensional goal of its mission statement. Regular feedback: The employees are given regular feedback from their superiors. This is extremely motivating, as employees feel their work is being marked / noticed. This motivation will lead to better and higher quality output. Further, if any employee is delivering quality that is not appropriate of the TOI standards, the feedback mechanism can bring this to his notice. Hence, regular and comprehensive feedback is a suitable manner of ensuring and sustaining quality of the output-consistently high standards of journalism. Ethics: TOI insists on very high ethical standards. Dodgy and underhand journalistic practises are disallowed and against the organisations culture. This helps maintain the accuracy of the news, as well as ensure its multidimensionality. Because collection of news has been done ethically, accuracy of news is guaranteed. Also, the journalist must speak to all persons involved in the issue, and give a balanced, non biased view. Hence, all dimensions of the issue are considered fairly. Free flow of information within the organisation: Information flows freely in TOI. There are good intra-organisation communication channels, such as the intranet, newsletters, etc. Hence, employees are always kept up-to-date about the managements decisions and imminent changes. This has a positive, binding effect on the organisation, and inculcates a sense of oneness in the employees. Feelings of alienation are averted. This improves the individuals loyalty to the organisation and dedication to their job, which again positively affects the output. Dysfunctional Aspects of culture: Interdepartmental discordance: There seems to be discordance between the different departments of the organisation, especially the business and editorial departments. This is a dysfunctional aspect of the culture, because both need to work together to achieve the best possible output. Both are dependent on each other, and none can work in isolation. Mutual understanding will ensure a more harmonious relationship and overarching organisational unity. Large power distance: The hierarchical structure is fairly rigid. Hence, the lower levels do not interact with the higher levels at all. This can lead to a sense of alienation. The higher-ups may be out of tune with the prevailing problems or mood at the lower organisational level. The large power distance can affect the organisations cohesiveness. Low scope for experimentation: TOI does not really encourage experimentation, preferring that employees play safe and stick to tried-and-tested options. This is an age of change and media explosion. If TOI wants to survive in these times, it is necessary that it inculcate a sense of experimentation and risk taking. This will help it remain the first paper that the reader reads, because even the reader wants novelty and something new. Limited recognition: TOI does not really recognise achievements of its employees formally and publically. Informal feedback and praise by the superiors does happen. But formally, it does not. To motivate employees and get from them the best possible output, it is necessary to recognise them publically as well. Rigidity: Rigidity comes through the prevailing bureaucracy. This acts as a barrier to change. Consistency of behaviour is an asset to an organisation when it faces a stable environment, however it can burden the organisation and make it difficult to respond to changes in the environment. Lower levels are intimidated to make suggestions: Some of the best suggestions in corporate history have come from those in the lower hierarchies, simply because they deal with the paper and the target audience on a direct basis. However, the lower level employees at TOI often feel intimidated to make suggestions to the higher ups, because of the size and history of the organisation. There is no easy, fast-tracked system to make suggestions without going through the hierarchy. This means that the newspaper is not as good as it could be, because there may be some excellent suggestions which have not been heard yet. Role, rather than person oriented culture: Over-emphasis on the role rather that the person performing the role makes the employee less loyal to the organisation. TOI needs to start building better relationships with its employees, so as to retain them. Constant turnover of employees affects the organisations stability and may lead to reduced quality of output. Further, employees motivation levels will be higher if the organisation culture starts focussing on the person as well. Action Plan for change: We have adopted the Kotters eight-step plan for implementing changes and improving the work culture of Times of India by doing away with the dysfunctional aspects of the internal working of the organisation. Step 1: Theres a need to create urgency for change among the employees. People tend to procrastinate and let things be as they are if not made to realize a need for urgent changes. For that, we need to give them a genuine reason that compels them change. As we have listed down in the dysfunctional elements, we need to bring these to the notice of employees to evoke an urge for change in them. Essentially, the employees of TOI need to realise that these are all dysfunctional elements, and the manner in which each of these is having a negative impact on them and well as the entire organisation. This can be done by organising a large meeting of the employees and the management, where the Chairman or any such respected and distinguished individuals lays out the dysfunctional elements and asks for the employees allegiance to organisational change. The Chairman should also outline how times have become very competitive, and that it is only on changing these negatives that the paper will continue to grow from strength to strength. Step 2: One needs to form a coalition with enough power to lead the change. In any real time organization, there would be advocates as well as opponents of change. Hence it becomes important to convince enough people for change that one is able to form a coalition that drives the whole process of change. One person cannot bring about a change; he can only show the direction. Hence, TOI could form a coalition consisting of a cross section of employees, management representatives, etc. These should represent all the various publications, departments and also all hierarchical levels. The coalition should be powerful enough to bring about the change, have respected members so employees believe in it, and also represent all sections of the organisation. By including even lower level employees, the change can be inclusive rather than forced. Step 3: It becomes important to create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision. People need to have a reason to support change. If theres no proper vision that directs the efforts for a change, then its like absence of an aim or goal which people might want to achieve. TOI should outline a new vision-a vision of a functional culture, where the existing dysfunctional elements have been reversed. This vision should be one of optimism and inclusion. It should stress the advantages to all the members of the organisation, as well as the paper itself. The vision should at the same time be specific, realistic, achievable and come with a specific timeline for implementation. Step 4: Only creating a new vision would not help until and unless it is communicated throughout the organisation. All the employees in the organisation should know the reason of so much efforts being put in the process to bring about a certain changes. The vision itself might act as a driving factor for many who wish to see themselves and the organisation at that level sometime in the future. This vision can be communicated through the organisation using verbal communication channels such as speeches, addresses by the management; informally by the superiors to their teams; or through the prevailing intra-organisational communication channels such as the in-house magazine, intranet, e-fliers, etc. The role of informal channels such as the grapevine should not be discounted. Step 5: Empowering others to act on the vision also becomes very important. For this, barriers to change should be removed and risk taking and creative problem solving should be encouraged. Like in the case of TOI, we saw that lower level employees are too intimidated to make any suggestions. Thus, these employees need to be empowered and should be listened to, to make the best of their knowledge. Hence, TOI can organise suggestion boxes, or a fast-track suggestion process whereby the lower level employees can make their views heard. Focus group meetings or participatory sessions with employees can also be conducted, to involve them in the change. All employees should be encouraged to be dynamic, experimentative, build relationships and understand the working of other departments. Step 6: Short term plans should be given as much importance as long term plans. There should be a reward system for short term wins. This helps to reward people at regular intervals and that acts as a motivating factor for more hard work in future. As we saw in case of TOI that the level of experimentation is very low, the employees should be encouraged to experiment more, and in case of any successful results, they should be awarded suitably. Step7: During the change process, it becomes necessary to consolidate the improvements brought about and reassess the effect of changed on the organisation so that necessary adjustments could be made in the new programs. For example, if the changes made in the internal functioning of TOI are focussed on more team works than individual performances, and if the results of that are not those desired or expected, then necessary changes should be brought about as soon as possible so that the organisation does not suffer through any losses. The HR can also hold sessions that involve members of the business and editorial departments, where they can bond and understand each others roles, so as to reduce conflict. To cement the dynamism in the organisation, and to make the higher-level managers more accessible to the lower level employees, mixers and informal sessions can be organised. Step8: It becomes important to reinforce any change that has brought about a success in the organisation. Hence, the new vision of the organisation should be consistently communicated on every occasion. Short term rewards should be complemented with long term rewards. Interview 1 Interview with Pooja Bhaktal, junior copy editor, TOI How long have you been working at TOI? I have been working at TOI for the past eleven months. I joined directly after my graduation; this is my first full-time job. Do you enjoy working at TOI? I do enjoy my work. It is a good place to work because there is a lot of history to the organisation; it is one of Indias oldest and best known papers. If you have a problem or a suggestion, how comfortable are you to approach your seniors? I am quite comfortable approaching my immediate superior, the senior copy editor. However, beyond that, I am not comfortable approaching the higher-ups. To be honest, the interaction with them is also limited. What has your interaction been with your higher-ups? Well, I was interviewed by the editor-in-chief of TOI. Occasionally, I receive mass mails for them, with certain guidelines or instructions for an on-going project. They sit separately from us; they have their own elevator, and even their own dining areas. So meetings are basically chance ones. They do not really mix around at the HR events either. Are your suggestions taken seriously, or even implemented? I have made a few content suggestions to my senior editor, but nothing too big, because I am still fairly new. I think I need to spend some more time and learn many more things before I am in a position to make suggestions. However, if I make a good suggestion, I do think it will be implemented. However, the sheer size and history of the organisation makes it very intimidating for a newcomer. Are there a lot of politics at TOI? Politics are everywhere! But the entire water cooler culture is not as much at TOI. I think that is because the organisation is very open with the employees, so there are not too many rumours or opportunities for speculation. We receive constant updates from HR, have our own intranet, have monthly in-house publications, briefings, etc. Also, promotions are strictly made on basis of experience. The evaluation process also seems very fair to me. Hence, the regular bitching-backstabbing routine does not exist here. Does the organisation encourage you to take risks? Although TOI is trying to change, it is predominantly an old school newspaper. So no, risk taking is not actually part of the culture. We are always encouraged to play safe, even if that may cost u a good opportunity. Does the organisation provide opportunities for employees of different departments to interact? Yes, the HR department often organises events. Recently, we have a New Years party. We also have celebrations for various festivals, an office picnic every six months, outings, joint training programmes, etc. Is there a lot of inter-departmental conflict or distance? The editorial and the business sides of the paper dont get along all that well, to be honest. Nether actually understands the other. The business wants to maximise profit, sell more ad space, put out news that is popular and will sell. The editorial wants to maintain the quality, keep more articles. Obviously there is bound to be regular tension. Even I deal with this on a daily basis. Does TOI encourage team work or individual work? How are assessments done? The stress is on individual work. Everyone has their own tasks and jobs to be done. Most of these are independent of others, even in the same department / editorial section. I cannot talk about the assessment procedure. Is there a fair amount of autonomy? Autonomy is there, it increases as you climb the ladder. No one interferes with your work; the editors are more like guides. You can approach them for help at any time. Once your story has been approved, it is all yours. Collaboration, however, is always available. Does the organisation encourage assertiveness or diplomacy? The focus is on diplomacy. Even if you have a problem with someone, you cannot go tell them directly. It has to be done tactfully. In my opinion, TOI encourages employees to discard their individuality and behave as TOI employees first. Is the organisation people-oriented or job-oriented? I would say job-oriented. It is a highly dynamic industry, people come and go. The jobs are constant. Do you get regular feedback, recognition for achievements, etc? We get annual evaluation reports. The organisation does not really give any other recognition or awards. We get regular feedback from our immediate superiors, and occasionally one level above. Are you a part of decision making processes of the organisation? No, employees, especially at the junior levels, are not involved. Thats because it is a very big organisation. Are you consulted or at least properly inform of changes? We are not consulted, but we are informed, usually in good time before the change happens. We also get relevant details and may approach the HR if we do not understand the change or have any sort of concerns. How important are ethics and morals in the organisation? Are they more important than results? Ethics are very, very important. We have an Ethics Handbook which we must follow at all costs, else risk being fired. This high value on ethics makes the organisation a very good place to work, because we follow the journalistic principles of honesty and integrity in letter and practise. This also translates into our behaviour at the workplace. Interview 2 Interview with Gauri Mane, Editor, Time N Style How long have you been working at TOI? I have been here for about six years, give or take. Do you enjoy working at TOI? I do enjoy working here. Thats why Ive stuck on for so long! There is something very honest about this organisation and what it stands for. There is also a lot of scope for growth and opportunities to learn because it is a huge media conglomerate. If you have a problem or a suggestion, how comfortable are you to approach your seniors? As an editor, it is my right and privilege to make suggestions and highlight issues. Are your suggestions taken seriously, or even implemented? Very often. I recently suggested that the website for my paper be revamped, which was approved by the Editorial board. Does the organisation encourage you to take risks? TOI is not really a risk-taking organisation. We are already established as the number one paper; hence the need to take crazy risks is minimal. Also, if we take a risk and that does not work out, it means that we are in trouble Does the organisation provide opportunities for employees of different departments to interact? Yes, the HR organises many such events that are for mixing and meeting. Is there a lot of inter-departmental conflict or distance? The legendary divide between the editorial and business departments exists too. It is a strange paradox. Both departments want the same objective-the success of TOI. Only the means to achieve them are different. The editorial sells the paper, but the ads sustain the paper. Who is to say which is more important? Sometimes, I feel employees of these two departments do not understand each other, and view each other as competitors rather than collaborators. Does TOI encourage team work or individual work? How are assessments done? Most of the work is individually done, that is simply the nature of the work. Plus, journalists are such free souls with strong, diverse views. Often, it is best to let them work individually. Do you not miss out on the advantages of collaboration? Collaboration also happens. No one can produce a full newspaper alone. It is just that the roles are properly divided. Division of labour, so to speak. Does the organisation encourage assertiveness or diplomacy? Diplomacy. The organisation does not like people who kick up the dust or yell themselves hoarse. There is a method to doing things diplomatically, which should be respected. There is no need to shake up the peace of the organisation. Is the organisation people-oriented or job-oriented? The newspaper industry used to be very people-oriented till the mid 1990s. Now it is job-oriented. People fill jobs, and not the other way around. Hard fact but true. Most of us here are on contract, and not employees for a lifetime. If we get a better opportunity elsewhere, we are free to leave. Of course, we do value the employees a lot! Do you get regular feedback, recognition for achievements, etc? We have our annual appraisals. I make sure I give my team regular feedback. There is no formal, pan-organisational recognition programme really. Are you consulted or at least properly inform of changes? I am consulted if it affects my paper or department. I am also informed of it properly through official channels. How important are ethics and morals in the organisation? Are they more important than results? Ethics are supreme at TOI. We value them above all else. We are a paper of values, morals and ethics. We do not resort to cheap stunts and gimmicks like other papers just for short term wins.