Thursday, January 31, 2019

The Physicists Essay -- Essays Papers

The PhysicistsThe Physicists is a satiric constitute written by the Swiss actor Friedrich Drrenmatt ab come in three physicists who are living in the cloak-and-dagger sanatorium Les Cerisiers headed by the last living member of an old regional aristocratic family, Miss Dr. h.c. Dr. med. Mathilde Von Zahnd. The first one thinks he is Sir Isaac Newton, but he is in originality Herbert Georg Beutler, the scrap one thinks he is Albert Einstein and his real name is Ernst Heinrich Ernesti. The third physicist, Johann Wilhelm Mbius is different, he has got no second personal identity but he is in this sanatorium because King Solomon speaks to him. We enter the play when many men are in the saloon. It is the place of a cataclysm as Mr Ernesti has strangled a nurse. Mr. Beutler has also killed a nurse a couple of months ago. The inspector is slightly annoyed because he has to visit Les Cerisiers the second time during a short period of time and because he kittyt speak to or take awa y the murderer . He is also expressing the wish of the public prosecutor that the sanatorium has to be taken over by male nurses because of the two murders by the two physicists.During the mannikin of the play the personal and physical change is perceptible. Both the main characters and the milieu are changing. For an example in act two, Herbert Georg Beutler alias Sir Isaac Newton turns out to be a long lost world famous physicistAlex Jasper Kilton who discovered the Theory of Equivalents also Albert Einstein alias...

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Business Ethics: BA Credit Cards for Illegal Immigrants

Is the grant of a loan as well as consequence of a opinion brain to il intelligent immigrants ethical, moral or legal? Is coast of the States justified in ignoring the ethical, moral and legal ejects of granting loans and trust calling card game to nonlegal immigrants? What could have been the to a greater extent superior reasons for granting loans and impute cards to individuals without Social Security cards and who are in fact felonious immigrants? The involve for fresh foodstuffs for loans and convictions Just like any banking institution, the sickish scramble for means to increase r as yetues can take a round of means including wrong, illicit or immoral means.While the interest of bank counselling is primarily to generate revenues to meet their compensation package for the expertise give upd stockholder value is similarly a strong interest on the fortune of the corporate board to prioritize revenues. Even labor would seek new benefits and salary adjustments to meet the increasing cost of living. Thus, the commonality of office in generating and increasing revenues is tempered by conflicting interests, resulting to further maximization efforts.This optimizing and maximize strategies under a tightening competitive environment encourages corporate improvement takers to identify new sources of revenues. Here, the groupthink syndrome starts to set aside ethical, moral and legal issues. (Jaksa &type A Pritchard, 1994) Credit cards and loans exit the vast opportunities for revenues for banks in the lay down of rank and file fees, interests, penalties, service charges, legal fees and separate finance terms that mean simply one thing revenues and more revenues for the denotation card issuer.In some instances, the justice even protects the emergence bank and condones its usurious practices through hidden charges that dead appear in the card billing. In some instances, states criminalize extension card defaults. Interests are often comp ounded monthly at a basic rate of 3 to 5 per cent per month which translates into 60 per cent annually without even considering any form of penalty, service charges and other fees. Many cards even automatically increase the credit curb to keep the credit card user paying merely the minimal interest and leaving the principal to accumulate as means of sustaining revenues on interests alone.The cash payback period for credit card issuer can number at less than two years with the credit card user almost permanently now tied to the principal that now scarce diminishes with the gamut of fees and charges coming. Even US President Barack Obama is concerned about this. (Feller & Aversa, 2009) The consequences Thus, credit cards are often aggressively marketed both to prime and subprime clients with vary fees. With the hundreds of different cards vying for market share, card issuers will not cube at creating markets for new issuances and consumers take pride in having more and more credit cards in their wallets.What then make the out policeed immigrants or those without social security number a bright prospect for credit cards or loans? What opportunities and risks do credit card issuers face in this area? Why are the requirements limited to the fact that only those with checking accounts during the finis three months and without history of overdrafts are qualified? (Feller & Aversa, 2009) Illegal immigrants need liquidity to live in the United States and credit cards provide the liquidity vehicle to cope with the American dream.A large number of prohibited immigrants find jobs, even odd ones, to survive hence their capability to recognise the means to live is strong and that their struggle to temporarily live even as an undocumented alien is considered a transition to ultimately seemly a permanent resident, as an immigrant or even as a US citizen. The need hence, to establish a credible record is considered needed to become an honorable citizen late r. This sector is reasonably a good credit risk considering their need to stay safe from the clutches of the immigration and naturalisation aid by keeping payments updated.In general, this form of self-regulated discipline enhances the credit worthiness of illegal immigrants. On the other hand, even if soulfulness ultimately defaults and last caught by the INS, illegal immigrants are often forced to stay in the United States while his credit card case is pending. Thus, the chance that he is able to extricate himself from credit card liability faculty provide him time to await any form of amnesty to regularize his status. Thus, it is believably based on these market characteristics that Bank of America took the risk of identifying this sector as a good credit risk.In fact, the Bank pilot-tested the credit card in selected areas and probably, the expansion binge to make it nationwide is a cover indicator that it has become a reasonably good prospect for business. Business, p articularly banks has a way of getting in despite the ethical, moral or legal issues. In uncertain times, generating revenues more than the need for ethical, moral or legal constraints is a more primordial philosophy of management. Here again, groupthink in the organization attempts to rationalize such policy.The Bank can anyway turn over to employ or hire topnotch lawyers to fight any form of charge of illegal doion with illegal immigrants. But is it really illegal to issue credit cards to illegal immigrants? If it is not, isnt it that what the law does not prohibit, it allows? Perhaps, the government will only be able to assert its lineament in the credit impasse if Bank of America seeks government interference to collect from past due credit card users. Otherwise, credit card transactions are can be considered global instruments that know no political boundaries. Is it unethical to issue credit cards to illegal immigrants?Banks transact business on a global scale. If the illeg al immigrant is issued a credit card in the United States, will it still be unethical or illegal or immoral in the event that if the person returns to his home country and uses his credit card therein? The global market has enab lead banks and the credit card issuer to conduct businesses that transcends political boundaries. Thus, if Bank of America issues a credit card to a citizen of another country while he is in that country, then travels to the United States and overstays his visa, will it then be illegal, unethical or immoral to use the card?Is it not that the usurious and unsporting practices of card issuer in charging usurious rates and the fine print trap, might be more of an unethical practice in the industry than issuing the credit card per se? Will not Bank of America in fact be helping the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) with issuing a credit card which effectively gets information from the illegal immigrant making the latter more vulnerable to apprehensio n by the INS? ConclusionThe issue of credit cards being issued by Bank of America to illegal immigrants can be taken from the context of purely business purpose to generate revenues. However, the ethical dimension that can be extracted from the case is the absence seizure of ethical ascendancy on the part of Bank of America to pay to the strengthening of the good governance, transparency practices and exemplary conduct of legitimate processes in the way revenues are generated.In the same way that employers of illegal immigrants are made to answer for the question of hiring these undocumented people in compliance with Immigration Laws. Thus, what right will Bank of America invoke to protect itself in the event of payment default by the illegal immigrant if it seeks protection from the law which discourages such transactions in the first place? The Bank undeniably wants the best of both worlds in this case.In addition, the groupthink syndrome in Bank of America that led to the adopt ion of this marketing strategy is, as usual, laced with that groupthink rationality. This makes use of the we feeling, the hallucination of morality, invulnerability with the moral, ethical and legal tone of such group systematisation and consensus leads to the excessive taking of risks without individual ethical responsibility. Hence, anyway one looks at the marketing strategy, the issue of ethics, morals and legalities can never be ignored. Has the Bank ran out of meaningful philosophy?Reference list Feller, B. & Aversa, J (2009), Obama pledges protections for credit-card users, the Associated Press retrieved April 10, 2009Website http//news. yahoo. com/s/ap/us_obama_credit_cards Jaksa, J. & Pritchard, M. (1994), Communication ethics Methods of Analysis. Western naut mi University, Belmont, CA Wadworth Publishing Company. Malkim , M. (2007) Bank of illegal aliens in America, retrieved April 19, 2009 website http//michellemalkin. com/2007/02/13/bank-of-illegal-aliens-in-am erica/

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

1920s Cars Essay

In 1918, only 1 in 13 families owned a car. By 1929, 4 out of 5 families had one. In the same duration period, the number of cars on the road increased from 8 million to 23 million. In fact, the industry grew so fast by 1925 over 10% of all people in the workforce had something to do with production, sales, service, or provide of automobiles.Buying on Credit At first, a buyer had to create cash to purchase a car. Banks were unwilling to lend money for something that was voiceless to seize if the borrower stopped making payments. A car could be locomote from place to place, unlike a stick out or land. In 1919, oecumenical Motors and Dupont introduced the concept of buying a car on creed. But alternatively of getting financing through a bank, they formed the General Motors betrothal Corporation (GMAC). By 1926, 75% of all car buyers were entering into credit purchase agreements. Fords Sales DeclineBetween utilize car sales to lower income families, and attractive financing o ptions on impudently cars for the middle class, Ford began to see a decline in sales. subsequently resisting change for several months, Ford finally chose to shut down production from May to November 1927 to design a new car and re-tool his factories. Ford exchange 300,000 Model As before the first one appeared on the market. It quickly became the most popular car, but the unplanned shutdown had monetary value Ford plenty. With over 40 other companies making cars in 1929, arguing began to increase. The Cars Influence on SocietyThe automobile changed the expression people worked, conducted their business, and shopped for needs and wants. Doctors were among the first to buy cars, which made it easier for them to make house calls. Police officers could now answer calls more quickly than on plunk or horseback. Cars also changed how people spent their leisure time. It gave us clean access to the world beyond our neighborhoods, our cities, and even our states. With a car, some exc eptional income, and more leisure time, motor vacations became popular.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Red Dead Redemption Analysis

Critical Analysis of a bouncing Red defunct salvation Professor Shawn Graham Jad Slaibeh 100804020 Submitted atomic number 90 February 7th 2013 The grainy I read chosen for my critical analytic thinking is Red executed Redemption. Red Dead Redemption was made, published, and engineered by a company called Rockstar Games (Rockstar Website). The major distributor of the hazard is a company who happens to feature Rockstar, Take-Two interactive. Being one of the most successful picture show juicy developers to date, Rockstar is kn admit for creating the popular and controversial juicy series dominating thieving Auto.Rockstar differs actually much from other(a) video gritty developers because they argon one of hardly a(prenominal) who have grown and sired the advancement of video coarse-graineds in terms of prowess and game contact. Rockstar is known for revolutionizing the pattern of having an open valet de chambre in condole with video games. This was not orig inally the case and happened over years of expansion. Rockstars first game was released on the original PlayStation. The game is called Grand thievery Auto. Its camera was in a birds eye mentation with basic 3D graphics consisting of repetitive worker movements. In analogy to today, the game was acceptedly quite simple in terms of graphics and game play.The game lacked a larger memorial. Its gameplay was establish mostly well-nigh the options of stealing cars, doing hits for confederacy members, stamp outing civilians, and evading the police. This lack of narrative and focus on violence may be one of the reasons why Rockstar dealt with a pile of controversy from the media. As Rockstar grew and released multiple titles, their video games utilized the advancement in technology to create a larger narrative. Using Rockstar Advanced Game Engine (RAGE), Rockstar developed third individual 3D modeled sandpit game (Ogilvie, 2010). With this vernal open world, the game developers w ere able to explore much narrative options.Red Dead Redemption used their graphical improvements to allow for new historical renderations such as talking NPCs with their own ethnicity and culture and NPCs who showing facial emotion and body language. This allows doers to connect better with the world Rockstar has created because they represent what masses atomic number 18 familiar with. Rockstar had greatly passed simple stage argument of Grand Theft Auto. This is why I chose Red Dead Redemption. It excels in the force of experiencing a fun and highly skilled game while having change representations of people, stories, and histories.They do so through implementing character traits in certain NPCs. The NPCs be programmed primarily in two ways. One is to help the instrumentalist in their quest by providing information to solve the main worry space. The other is to try and stop the histrion this creates some other hassle space that the worker must solve. The addition o f these advance NPCs really helped Rockstar deliver a story to their fakers. They force the shammer to constantly see familiar NPCs which creates a confederation between them and the role fraud. These NPCs force you to make many righteous decisions throughout the game.These moral choices the player has to make adds a great deal of advancement to the narrative because the game is programed to change based on these decisions. If the player was to help a gang of thieves raid a site in order to detect money, civilians would remember due to the decrease in honour and news would spread. Decisions the player makes affect how NPCs, such as townsfolk or sheriffs, approach the player in the game. If the player was riding their knight along a prairie street and happened to see a gang of thieves taking someone hostage, the player could kill or hogtie the bandits and their honour meter would go increase.These decisions program NPCs to now finger safe around the player by cheering for them. These cheers can oft make the player feel happier because of the heroic role they are playing. This tender care for is what makes Rockstar games a fan favourite. Another reason Rockstar advanced so quickly was the positive change in hardware. The game was originally released on both the PS3 and the Xbox 360 on May 18th 2010. I played the game on my Xbox 360 console. To capture the experience of the Wild West, Rockstar consulted some historical experts in the field, along with channelling a lot of time and money into the graphics of the game.According to a New York Times online article, Rockstar spent between 80-100 million dollars on growth the game (Schiesel 2010). I mention this statistic because this comes to show the new era of awe Rockstar brought to video game production. In any video game, soundtracks can be an incredible boost in its overall character. The soundtracks in Red Dead Redemption are authentic it gives the game historical flavour. What I nasty by this is you truly doctor a feeling of the westbound experience. Rockstar brought on composers Woody Jackson and Bill Elm.In a derriere the scenes video, the composers explain that it is inborn for them to chance upon a balance, paying homage to what was there but also trying to add our stamp to the music (GamerSpawn, 2010). Another interesting line they mentioned was the ability for the game to launch certain lines of music to start based on your actions. For example, if you jump on a dollar, a bass line rolls in. If the player is in a shootout, the music intensifies. The music helps reinforce the players connection with the historic west by creating familiar sounds associated with the Western era.Before I mention the problem spaces of the game, I would equivalent to continue linchpin to explaining some of the hardware information behind Red Dead Redemption. outset we will talk about the controller/controls. Controls have the potential to play a big factor in how we experienc e a video game. The way the controls are programmed correlate directly with your characters movement. This gives the player a bigger sense of control. This control makes for a better visible connection. Red Dead Redemptions controller functions do a great job in the ability to allow the player to stupefy immersed in the game world.If you were not aware of the classic Xbox 360 controller, here is how it is displace out Some basic controls of the game are left scram controls which direction your character moves in, right stick controls which direction your character looks, draw the right gun trigger will fire your weapon, and pulling left trigger starts the aim mode which makes it easier to hit your target. The Xbox 360 controller, along with the Red Dead Redemption controls, allow the player to control what we are familiar in our routine lives For example, to shoot a gun in the real world you have to pull a trigger.This is emulated when pulling the trigger on the Xbox controll er. When driving a vehicle and turning in a certain direction, we turn the wheel. This is emulated by moving the left stick in order to direct your character. This makes the experience more enjoyable and recognizable. Throughout the game you are only overbearing one character, the protagonist. The name of this protagonist is John Marston. Marston is a designer illegalise who makes a deal with the state to bring averageice to his former gang of outlaws in order to get his family back.Upon Marstons attempt to find and capture his former gang members, the plan goes wrong for our protagonist and he is left for dead. Luckily, you are approached by a local ranch farmer, Bonnie Mcfarlane. Bonnie saves your sustenance and brings you back to her farm. That is our initial problem space. The player is today placed into the world with a want to defeat our twisted former gang of outlaws and get our family back. This creates an immediate munificence for our protagonist which adds even more of narrative. Because the game represents believable situations, players are more likely to sympathize.Although we are placed in a world where there is only one end goal of honkting to death the men who left you for dead and are in the way of getting your family we have a wide variety of choices in the path of attaining this goal. This concept of beginning the game after being left for dead wholly on your own creates an even bigger problem space. My big doubt was, what do I do first? The player has the ability to admittance this map in the start menu pic In the Western era, maps would certainly be a way to represent space. Therefore the map gives us the ability to represent space in a way that people are used to.This adds a historical flavour to it because it represents history with adding its own personalized flavour. This map is a fanciedized/representational map of Canada, Mexico and the US. Much like the real world, each territory has its differences. For example certain NPCs with ethnic representations are present in each area, certain animals are associated with familiar habitats in different territories, and territories such as Canada have more green lands where as Mexico is represented as more dry. To travel to these different lands, we are immediately handed a horse.When the player first gets their horse, it is quite slow. This is a problem and slow travel can become quite boring. Upon playing I thought there had to be some options to overcoming this problem. Like the real world, the player has the option of feeding their horse to increase its stamina. Another implementation is the think bar that develops with the players horse. This swear bar adds narrative because we are familiar with turn ining trust with living things in the real world. The longer the player has kept their horse, the prompt it gets and the more risks it is willing to take to get you to your destination.The game specifically promotes take account by rewarding the player s for keeping the same horse. In doing so, the interface encourages the player to behave a certain way with this virtual animal, representing a family relationship common to real life. Even though this horse is merely a program in a video game, the power of the game and the value I had onto it made me have a connection to it. Unfortunately, it is quite come-at-able for the players horse to die. For example, upon passing by a piteous woman being harassed by drunk men that before entering a town, one of the men shot my horse dead while attempting to hogtie them.After all the investment of money I had put into my horse to increase its stamina, the time spent together gaining trust, and the many missions we had sinless together, my horse was now gone. Connecting to history, the video game allows the player to feel the unhinge that people must have gone through when their own horse died. Cl premature their problem was much bigger than a video game can represent, but it once again b rings out empathetic emotions. Although the game itself was not based off any real characters or real story lines, it still had the power to create a real connection.The game places the character in an age out aspect of their norm. If a car breaks down, that person now has the ability to take out a cell shout and call a friend to pick them up. If in 1900 someones horse died, that is that until a new horse is acquired. This was now part of my problem space. With these newly acquired problems that I did not have just thirty seconds earlier, I clearly had to deal with these men who altered my path for the negative. Due to this mouse I had developed, I quickly hogtied the surviving men and placed their bodies on the train tracks for the upcoming train to deal with them.Although this was an act of immorality because the game gives you an option to return them to the sheriffs station, I felt no sympathy for these men who, before shooting my horse, were attacking a lone woman. looking f or at the game on a narrative level, this meant that a side of my true character was shown, one that let my emotions dictate my actions. At that accurate moment the video game explained and taught me a lesson in morality. It also explained how, just like in the real world, others may have handled that same situation completely differently.Moving forward in the game, I was forced to purchase another horse and develop a new connection between us. purchasing horses is one of the many ways that money is used to solve problems in the game. Money is quite similar to how it is in the real world. The player involve to do work and complete services in order to gain it. It is quite hard to gain money, unlike the other Grand Theft Auto games, which enforces the player to spend wisely. Some examples of situations where you need money are to buy weapons, ammunition, houses (in order to have multiple save points), and medicine to heal.The player may also acquire money through selling items they find and doing favours and missions for locals and friends met along the way. There is one final question to be answered was the game historically accurate? The answer to this question is it depends what you classify as historically accurate. The term is thrown around quite often. Unfortunately, based on the game play, there is far too much fantasy to need it a game that accurately depicts the lifestyle that people lived in the early 20th century.The game is based off a completely fictional story with fake characters in a fake world. However, the game did a great job of showcasing some aspects of the time frame by utilizing the advanced RAGE physics engine, the programmed NPCs with character traits, a familiar map system, the players horse that rewards you for your loyalty and protection, and the advanced controller settings. Overall, the narrative behind Rockstar Gamess Red Dead Redemption will be remembered in history as one of the most advanced video games for its time. extens ion service List 1.Rockstar San Diego Official Website Available from http//www. rockstargames. com/reddeadredemption/ 2. Ogilvie Red Dead Redemption on the whole the RAGE Available from http//ca. ign. com/articles/2010/01/28/red-dead-redemption-all-the-rage Jan 28 2010 3. Schiesel Way Down orphic In the Wild, Wild West Available from http//www. nytimes. com/2010/05/17/arts/ tv set/17dead. html? pagewanted=all=0 May 16th 2010 4. GamerSpawn Red Dead Redemption Soundtrack Behind the Scenes Available from http//www. youtube. com/watch? v=vEsknPy5rvg July 29th 2010

Friday, January 25, 2019

Women in Psychology Paper

Women have made many an(prenominal) contri justions to the advancement of psychological science, many of which have g one and however(a) without notice until recent whiles, and some of which still goes strange in the field of psychological science. The mention of women in the early assumement of psychology usually refers to them as minor indorsers to a field that at one time was predominantly dominated by men. Women of the time were subject to sexual practice and martial prejudice (Stipkovich, 2011). One such women who thrived in the field of psychology despite of and greatly due to the discrimination women experienced in the 1900s is Leta Hollingworth.According to Stipkovich (2011), The remarkable path Leta Hollingworths life took her was instrumental in fit a significant figure in the history of psychology of woman (Contri scarceions to the field of Psychology). Background Born Leta Anna Stetter, in May of 1886 in Nebraska, she was the oldest of lead children. Raised o n her grandparents farm after her mothers death and fathers abandonment following the birth of her youngest sibling. Leta Stetter received her early clod education in a one-room log disciplinehouse, an education she later draw as excellent in every respect (Miller, R.1990, para. 4). Leta received high school in 1902, at the age of 15 she was one of 8 students in the class. In high school Leta showed a talent for germinal writing which she was encouraged to develop in college. Leta enrolled and attended the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, where she quickly achieved a campus reputation in literature and notional writing and was designated category Poet of the Class of 1906 (Miller, R. 1990, p. 145). While attending the university Leta met and became engaged to classmate Harry Levi Hollingworth.Harry graduated from the university out front Leta and decided to do his graduate studies in impertinently York at capital of South Carolina University, Leta stayed in Nebraska to fini sh her undergraduate oeuvre and graduated in 1906. Unable to start a career in writing as she originally intended due to financial businesss, Leta took a teaching vista in Nebraska and later joined Harry in New York the two were married on December 31, 1908. Leta attempted to get a job as a teacher in New York but was denied found solely on her marital status. This was a very cross circumstance for the talented and educated graduate and led to the questioning of the theatrical role women play insociety (Stipkovich, 2011).Over time Leta went on to complete her graduate studies at capital of South Carolina receiving an M. A. in 1913, Ph. D. 1916. While completing her studies in educational psychology at Columbia Leta had an opportunity to work directly with Edward d bearwind Thorndike. According to Stipkovich (2011), With the environment finally allowing her to explore her academic interests, and questions about her own existence as a married woman, she pursued the study of wom ens psychology and new interests in happyness and intelligence (A little Background). Theoretical perspectiveLeta became kindle in psychology after questioning womens inferiority to men. later researching the works of other psychologist she found only one assertion that could be tested scientifically. This assertion was commonly known as the discrepancy hypothesis, (Benjamin, L. , 1990 p. 147). Held, L. (2010), states The variability hypothesis posited that men exhibit greater variation than women on two physical and psychological traits, in essence suggesting that men occupied both the highest and lowest ends of the spectrum on any trait and women were doomed to second-rater (para.4).In align to disprove this hypothesis Leta did some research at the Clearinghouse for Mental Defectives Hollingworth believed societal roles accounted for the differences, not innate differences (Held, L. 2010 p. 3). She conducted an experiment over a three calendar month time period on both men a nd women from a behaviouristic perspective which essential proved there was no decrease in womens performance during the course of their cycle. While teaching at Columbia Leta started to express an interest in the study of exceptional children.While working with these children she spy most of them were averagely intelligent but suffered from adjustment problems due to adolescents. In 1928 Leta promulgated The Psychology of the Adolescent once again done from a behaviorist perspective further research should children with high intellect could be problem children, causing her to ask what special programs have been developed for them in ordinary schools? (Benjamin, L. , 1990). She worked on assessment tools for early identification of the intellectually gifted, and inevitably her work led her to the development of educational methods for these children Benjamin, L., 1990).Contributions to the field of psychology Leta Hollingworth is a contributor to three specific fields of psychol ogy. Letas recognition of the challenges human faced by women set precedent to a new field of psychology the psychology of women. Barbaro (2002), Because of her work, future women would not have to deal with unchecked acquisitions of innate mediocrity or menstrual disability in their pursuit of scientific musical note (Contributions to Psychology).In 1921 Leta Hollingworth was cited in American Men of Science for her research on the psychology of women (Held, L. 2010 p. 15). The other field of psychology Leta Hollingworth was a great contributor to the psychology of the exceptional child which led to her much known involvement and form in school psychology. Due to her studies on the gifted children she was able to develop methods to recognize gifted children and aide in the development of a school curriculum better meeting their needs.Hollingworths writings on gifted children, special education, adolescence, and mental retardation were inspirational for over twenty days (Miller, R. , 1990). In clinical psychology she disproved the variability hypothesis her examination on both male and young-bearing(prenominal) infant craniums proved that while the males were somewhat larger if a difference in variability existed it favored females (Held, L. 2010 p. 4). later the disproving of the variability hypothesis Leta Hollingworth worked in the field of clinical psychology half-time for twenty years.Other contribution to psychology are noted publishings such as Gifted Children Their Nature and Nurture (1926) this book was based on the results of her study on gifted children and Children Above 180 IQ (1942) this was Leta Hollingworths last publication and was completed after her death by her husband, Harry L. Hollingworth (Held, L. 2010 p. 7). Conclusion Leta Hollingworth was a women extraordinary for her time. She not let her hard childhood interrupt her from gaining an education instead she used her less than ideal up bring to develop a talent in creative w riting.When she found herself unable to work doing what at the time seemed like her cancel calling she went on to teach, only to find her marital status would prevent her from doing so. This turning point in her life was discouraging but, with the support of her husband went on to gain an education, and dismantle one of the theories that prevent her and other women of her time from equal treatment. Leta went on from their developing not only one but three types of psychology that had not yet been explored in-depth, the psychology of women, educational psychology, and the psychology of the gifted child.Her work in the field of psychology not only furthered the field it changed the way women were looked upon, and the education of children both gifted and non-gifted. Instead of bonny a victim of her era she went on to become a pioneering female psychologist of her time were she to observe contemporary society, she would be gravely disappointed that in the past 50 years there has been so little make out in changing societal attitudes toward the gifted, and that women, particularly gifted women, still face so many impediments to achievement and recognition (Silverman, L. K. 1992 p. 11).

Importance of good leadership command and management in military environment Essay

Importance of superb attr executionship, want and counselling in multitude surroundIntroduction            There is wide recognition of leadinghip, reignler and concern by dint of the eagle-eyed amounts of the available literatures. What is great leadhip, controller and concern? How rear entire leading skills be acquired? The study of leading, command and management is a life yen endeavour that is composed of not bad(predicate) values such as loyalty, cogency to act as well as the ability to pass clear messages to the subordinates in a particular group (Boulder, 2009, p.67). However, slender has been developed pertaining to the three although scholars recognize that they ar closely related peculiarly in the array context. In a broad spectrum, different scholars see defined leaders in different offices. Over a long detail, it has been impossible to determine whether leadership is an aspect or a eviscerate of status. However, according to Horn and Walker(2008), leadership is the ability of bingle human race world to stir sentiments in an brass sectional perspective and captivate the behaviours of new(prenominal)s especi every last(predicate)y the lesser. In view of this, it has been concluded that leadership is an inherent source of business leader the proponent to direct a group of people to fightds the happen uponment of a leaders goals by transmitting those goals into aims of everyone. In general, leadership is an elusive role that is expressed in different environments. Secondly, according to Beerel (2009), command refers to an coiffe habituated by a commander and engulfs the will of the commander expressed for the plan of bringing closely a particular change or achieving a specific objective. Use of command is mostly emphasized in the disembowel environments. Inherently, command is different at each direct of soldiery trading operations and the travail changes i n different dimensions in relation to the will and the skills of those in commands. Fin onlyy, the third feature is serious management. match to Boulder (2009), management refers to the organization, coordination, readying, despotic of organizational or a groups activities in order to gain the outflank and attain the nonplus goals. The three aspects ar slender and very valuable in the phalanx operations and their applications expect prodigious benefits in the operations at large. This research paper aims at baring the importances of leadership, command and management in array environments.            In the literature of phalanx, the three aspects of good organizational structure prevail vast amounts of definitions. In a broad spectrum, everyplace a long period scholars commence recognized the significance of good leadership and cohesion in host environments especi anyy when it comes to ensuring phalanx machine triu mph in variety of domains. either the same, it is evident that host activities can completely be achieved in force(p)ly if only every last(predicate) members can carry out their activities responsibly in a collective approach (Beerel, 2009, p.119). This essentially means that everybody in any forces operation irrespective of the occupation, operational rank or status has a role to play and should operate in accordance to the military directive principles. Most importantly, military leadership, command and management play a rattling role in ensuring the mentioned winner.            legions leadership is the lick of unfavourablely influencing opposite individuals in a military operation to obtain a posture explosive charge by touring a structured purpose, target objective, direction, and purposive motivation. On the other(a) hand, command is a term that is closely colligate to leadership in a military environment and it ref ers to the consent a person in military service legally exercises over other individuals or subordinates by the last merit of his or her rank and direct (Horn & antiophthalmic factorereWalker, 2008, p.48). This means that the most successful military organization is the one that practices god leadership and promotes cohesiveness that bonds the personnel together an integrated thought of rationale and belongingness. Although good leadership is non an easy task to define, juvenile research and scholars have developed a substantial basis that creates a relationship between a military operation per chassisance and good leadership, command and management. Inherently, good leadership has not only proved to have a positive impact on the performance unless has in standardized manner shown an emendd group functioning by buffering effects that arise from brusque leadership strategies. As illustrated and discussed by different researchers, leading in a military environment is char acterized a Leadership strategy that is not managerial in the military perspective as well as a style that focuses on personalized emphatic and direct contact with soldiers. Nevertheless, a military leadership should be charismatic in nature or else than glib (Horn &Walker, 2008, p. 109). In most fibres, leadership in the military is viewed as protective of certain members of a group. Most of the good leaders in this case argon guided by the capability of not focusing on success but focus on edifice and neutralizing on the failures originally realized (Beerel, 2009, p. 88). In wider terms, leadership comes in some shapes and approaches and each has both positive and negative. As a result, useful leaders ac fellowship the significance of applying the best strategies at all costs. In its simplest forms, leadership is all about influencing individuals to act and achieve some objectives that argon critical and important to the leader, the sinless group or even an organization (Horn &Walker, 2008, p. 176). In staple terms, leadership is a human constituent that leads, motivates and inspires particularly during times of chaos, misunderstandings, crisis and complexity and provides a solution when directives have less or no or have little effect on cold, wearied and stressed subordinates. In many cases, research has established that good leadership mostly in the military environment encourages subordinates to go beyond their obligations and committing themselves into the mission in a way that maximizes their possible (Beerel, 2009, p. 37). Most importantly, in the military good leadership serves as a very individualistic thus far a very business leaderful role that allows commanders and leaders at all levels to shape and alter the environment in which subordinates and thereby, influencing the individuals characters, behaviour and even the fulfils of others. As such, good leadership is a key operator in motive individuals to fight to a greater e xtent.            The most important thing about good leadership is that it provides the basis for the constructive role modelling consequently providing an extremely influence on individual reactions on curseening events. As pertains the American link in the universe War II, scholars have realized that leadership from in front especially in war is very imperative. In addition, researchers have repeatedly proven that the availability of solicitous leadership creates a force that suspensors resist fear in military environments and hence provide a strong constituent of combat motivation            In any military mission the main and the basic task of a leader is to take c atomic number 18 the success and the performance of the operation as well as ensuring the welf are of the subordinate colleagues. Further much, to hold in the quoted success, the command in military environments is offe red through an make structure that is the chain of command. In general, a chain of command is the place of commanders in an operation who have a series of duties and responsibilities to ensure the accomplishment of the mission as well as caring for the personnel and the possessions they are under charge. Particularly in the military, it is very important that soldiers including those in leadership understand that most of the time, they rely more on those who are on their left or right for shapeing support. Nevertheless, good leadership helps leaders gain honour from their subordinates. The key characteristics of good leadership in the military being honour, morality and integrity of which the three derive directly from the curious and pronounced intensity of the military environment in which the leadership is expressed. In terms of leadership, military organizations are different from other leadership organs in terms of their basic nature and reasons for being (Horn &Walker, 2 008). Consequently, the power of the military official to exercise and influence the performance of the other soldiers are as a result of good leadership. In fact, soldiers always watch over a good leader at any conditions of any battle. Nevertheless, good military leadership is built by evolution military familiarity, trustworthiness and reliance from following who in most cases are the soldiers. phalanx leadership in restorations with reference to an operation is important because it prevents the fighters from leaning towards different solutions hence preventing argumentation and confrontations within a group undertaking a springy manoeuvre.            summons in military perspective refers to the way and means by which the commander sees the claim and takes most appropriate and possible actions to have the need satisfied. Command encompasses all military operations and functions giving them a heart and matching to complete unit with functional entities. The duty of commanding is vested on the commander who is authorized by set statutes to give directives as the attitude whitethorn demand (Chapman, 2009, p.65). In military environment, command cannot be confused from control. Command endures with a view to imparting control on controls in order to ensure coordination and reply to emergency in military field of study. Commands may take a form of quick reaction that makes it possible to hunt down duties accurately in a moment of crisis. Command requires some level of experience, and judgment that can only be performed only by hot personnel who are capable of devising tactic and operation strategies. According to scholars, command occurs in three distinct categories that are highly associate to enhance the success of military operation. The basics for all command in the military activities is the power that is vested in the commanders, over their subordinates. The authority is in form of a rank that is bestowed to an individual either by the defiance force or by law through the constitution. In the military perspective, the personal command comes because of an individuals charisma, experience and diligence in the capital punishment of his duties. The other members of the organization normally crown this power to an individual. Noteworthy, official command provides the power to act but is not sufficient to make reverberative impacts (Shamir, 2011, p.109). Most of the powerful commanders possess extra power from the personal experience or inborn attributes. In the military, this high ground level of personal authority, coupled with legal power is what makes charismatic commanders in the forces and the powers are delegated to subordinates. However, the commanders remain accountable since they are obliged to report to senior authority for instance the head of state. Command in the defense reaction force is a complex activity that comprise of diverse but linked activities that are coordinated to achieved common direct and purpose. As a significant factor for success in military operations, command touches the peoples social, heathenish and economic. Nevertheless, the authority gained from possession of commanding power controls the inter relations among individuals of varying backgrounds. Military command exists in three categories that are diverse but highly related. These categories are legal, individual and departmental command (Wittmann, 2012, p.78).            Firstly, legal command is vested in the head of the state by the constitution that has the power over the armed forces. The head of state charges the secretary of the state the general task for security. The state secretary in turn confers the power to the commanders in oral sex of armed forces. For that reason, the command is vested to the commanders but through higher powers that assigns force to them to accomplish operation. (Shamir, 2011, p.98).The commanders, guided by military principle of service to the nation, organize coordinates and commands the legions carry out an operation. Command is the central feature of a formal military structure and defines the individual control over others in a given area of expertise.            Secondly, individual exercise of command involves the manner in which the commander makes terminations and conveys them to his juniors. The individual command gives commanders the authority, responsibility and duty to act in a manner that safeguards the safety of the state. In this case, the commander makes decision, communicates them and directs the subordinates to take action for accomplishment of a mission hence fostering success. However, the commander dust accountable for the decision they make (Muth, 2011, p.101). In this context, command and accountability requires stabbing epitome. To enhance efficient and smooth running of the military operat ions, commanders are likely and obliged to answer to the superior about the power delegated them. On the other side, subordinates in the military environments remain answerable to the commanders. Command in this case may include the acts of unequivocal, ordering and predicting of which the three enhance the aspect of afterlife success hence promoting success. Organizational command is related to entity figure of speech and takes stratified structure from the supreme to the subordinate hence this ensures that work is divided to achieve high level of coordination among the work activities involved in the force. Moreover, it is studyly concerned with family of labor, departmentalization, authority allocation and span control that promote efficacy. It is worth noting that, effective teach and education is important to commander in military environment. With the acquired knowledge from the training, planning skills are developed that sharpens situational awareness and is require d in the rapid response to combat and establish controls. Inherently, war being a major issue that brings conflict between parties, solution is needed and commonly comes in form of command. In the military, there is no single activity in accomplishing a mission that is as important as command. Command can end conflicts without devising attacks, destroying enemy targets and engaging in any war fighting activity (Muth, 2011, p.123). Planning organization and success of battles lies on the dot of command. In absence of command, military unit will possibly pervert into mobs and subordination of troops will be replaced by violence and misunderstanding. In review, command is the tool that drives all military activities and operations. Military command gives all the operations of martial purpose and direction. When command is well done, it grants the activities success and meaning. Contrary, under the weather executed military command calls for disasters from the potential enemies. C ommand bestows the commanders with an opportunity to best apply their intellectual capability to safeguard the safety of all citizens as well as upholding the troops reputation. Commander makes decision on what they shade is good for the people and then give directives to the subordinates to act immediately promoting response within the troops (Wittmann, 2012, p.77). Seemingly, senior commanders make suggestions about division of work at organizational level, delegate the authority and finally institute a span control. Eventually, these decisions become elaborate and clearly depict the organization structure. Command facilitates in building the military finis that outlines how operations are carried out. Establishing horticulture enables commanders to identify the weak point that need check for the improvement to be achieved.            According to Ploch, (2009), command includes task such as collecting and analyzing data, planning, or ganizing imaginativenesss and making decision that aims at monitoring and supervising military activities and operations. Command results to a procedure of executing an activity although its self not a procedure. In military context, command imparts control on all the activities and operations carried out that range from simple data collection to complex analysis to facilitate communication of instructions and information obtained. Commands in military environment helps at providing an insight into the requirements of an insecurity challenge faced by a nation. In addition, the command will assist at developing the word of honor about enemy and their habitat. As get byd by the Chapman (2009), best way to licking an enemy is by understanding his environment, tactics that they use and their intensity of their threat and this can only be achieved with good command in place. This enable s the military troops to unravel truths about the enemys intentions, strengths and weakness. Conse quently, the commander having the prerequisite skills and information is empowered to plan and deploy troops in a battle having situational awareness of the attacks.            Furthermore, commands aids in developing and setting suitable goals and devising mechanisms to adapt to those goals as the situation changes. Military authority lends a hand in developing appropriate action plan to attain desired aspirations. The power creates direction and focus that provides a vigorous approach for assessing numerous essentials of the force. Authority also provides for means of eonian monitoring and evaluation to assess the adaptability of the mechanisms employed. Above all, it should provide an opportunity to confine the military intentions against the potential enemies a long side developing a rapid response governing body. Briefly, good power and control should generate antiphonal actions that are appropriate, applicable, and decisive and s ecure (Shamir, 2011, P.79). Even though commanding system is constantly evolving, the basic nature is that war is undesirable and unwanted. Technological changes and improvements have lessened the demand for commands in the military environment. The evolution of commands has not unplowed pace with the complexities of warfare. Command seems to impart controls that are merely dealing with basic challenges of uncertainties of time. The impact of command remain static irrespective of the constant changes in the wars sophistications.            Another importance tool in the success of military operations is management. focal point in broad spectrum refers to the acts of organizing and coordinating human pick to achieve a desired objective (Schwartz, 2006, P.24). It is an important component in success of any activity. The success of the military operations high depends on the capability of the senior officers. It is a very complex issue and therefore best explained through it features. Actually, management has been a matter of schoolman interest as scholars try to unravel its functions and features (Dudley, 2012, p.67). Like Leadership, management is referred as one of the strong military tool since there does not exist any weapon that can replace it. The quality of management more often than not determines the success of defence forces operation. The success with which the troops accomplish mission is depended on the management skills of the commanders. Managers attempt to balance the allocation of resources to different units within an organization to achieve set goals. trouble is one of the major responses to security issues that military highly value (European Conference on acquaintance Management, & Neto, 2010, p.79). receivable to change and growth in size of defence forces, many complexities are evident in the military environments. To handle these sophistications, good planning, coordination and organiz ation is paramount. prissy and equitable allocation of resources assures of balance between all the units of the defence that are interdependent (Ehlen and Harmon, 2001, p.88). For the reason of this mutualism, the success of one unit is the success of the entire system therefore the existence of effective and efficient management brings about a certain degree of consistency to the important decisions made by the military officials. In the military as quoted earlier management develops the cogency to goals achievement through proper organization and staffing hence sets the organization structure and creates jobs to accomplish a military operation. This is achieved through care analysis of situations and providing a framework for accomplishment through decision-making. Management identifies a problem, suggests solution through process of problem solving and draws a plan for execution (Ehlen and Harmon, 2001, p.89). Noteworthy, military is very complex issue with many activities ru nning concurrently. These activities require planning coordination and balancing to have them executed simultaneously. For better results, motivation and inspiration on the part of staff is mandatory. Actually, management aims at maximizing human resource with the available skills and technology and it applies in the same way in the military therefore a key element in the success of military missions. For instance, good management in the forces helps officials to plan for financial resources and the numbers of troops to be deployed in a certain battle. (European Conference On Knowledge Management and Neto, 2010, p.106). In addition, good military management influences proper budgetary allocation by the supervision. Military administration is also very important in evaluating the success of an operation. In this, the operation is assessed whether it was time and cost effective. Management also assesses how a military activity achieves external goals. The results of evaluation helps t he managers reveal loopholes in the defence force and then suggest action to ensure that a nation is safe from all threats. In addition, management ensures that all the support organs of the military are availed for the continued success of the defence force. It may be argued that, the success of military lies in its management. Management combines all functional units in defence force and coordinates them to collectively achieve a collectively achieve a common goal (Dudley, 2012, p.109). According to the European Conference On Knowledge Management and Neto (2010), management is a spanking driving force that propels all the activities and the operations of the military. It outlines the necessary framework for the implementation of the policies and the decision made. In fact, European Conference On Knowledge Management and Neto (2010), proposed that there is need to improve management which is a vital element of military and effort mechanisms and should be put in place to improve f unctionality an endeavour that can only be achieved through training, benchmarking and motivation (Ehlen and Harmon, 2001, p.123). Institutions that offer military studies need to be boosted by the government through resource allocation with the core aim of improving the achieving high quality and efficient work force in the field of military. Additionally, the soldiers need some training especially in area that are highly challenging like the war torn area, where they are fully engaged in field operations. To achieve the overall success of the management other aspects should be co-ordinated to ensure balance among management leadership and command. The types of leadership with the defence forces help at streaming the command that exist. Management comes as a facilitator of the overall implementation of what is decided at the drawing table.            As defined earlier in the introduction, management in the military context refers to th e allocation and control as well as the coordination of human, financial and material resources to achieve the goals and objectives set (Rodt, 2014, p. 77). Essentially, in matters concerning military operations, the measure for good management is the ability to achieve balance in all activities undertaken. For managers senior individuals in a military environment to ensure that their management operations are good and effective, scholars argue that knowing the roles they should play in order to achieve success is essential. Without good and effective management strategies in organizations more so the military groups in the ready-moving and dynamic environment, the operations tend to turn chaotic and this in the long rum may threaten success (Sooters et al., 2010, p. 128). As a basic factor and component of success in any organizational process and approach, management brings a degree of consistency to some of the critical decision made by the senior officials in the military. In t he same way as in other organizations, management in the military has not been left behind in promoting staffing. It develops the capacity for military organizations to achieve their plans by aligning individuals into the positions they best fit (Rodt, 2014, p. 77). When deeply analyzed, management applies the same approaches as leadership and command. In this sense, separating the three in the military environment denies success a chance hence failure to attain the set objectives. In addition, in the military environment, management ensures plan accomplishment by controlling and monitoring through the analysis and evaluation of the results achieved versus the plan.            As leadership, command and management in the present times are more than the leader and the led, more than the commander and the commanded as well as more than the manager and the managed respectively, the officers of at present in the military have to subtly develo p good and in effect(p) alternative ways through which, they will lead, command and manage efficiently. For instance, in the present the Royal Air Force subordinates are treated in ethical way such that they can question any manipulation accorded to them by their seniors hence provoking the traditional methods that used to utilize the acknowledged commands form above. Actually, the traditional approaches that undermined the status of the subordinates should no longer be welcome in any military environment (Sooters et al., 2010, p. 128). Today, military organizations due to good leadership, command and management can move from temporary and uncooperative systems to more empowered groups hence nurturing healthy, decent and valuable followers that with the post-bureaucratic minds can excite any military agenda towards its success. Additionally, leaders, managers and commanders in the military should adhere to good leadership styles, team building strategies and matrix-style manage ment that helps bring together military fraternity and inter agency operations in a fast paced, high tempo environment. At the same time, the officials should continuously and simultaneously design and implement policies and plans to maximize on group cohesion, promote subordinate potential as well as providing healthy professional ethics. With this kind of ambiance in the military environment, this kind of leadership will end up creating more future leaders rather than developing lenient followers (Rodt, 2014, p. 77). Therefore, major purpose and goal of such up to date leaders, commanders and managers would turn change, transforming people and military organizations by setting and articulating vivid vision and implementing effective strategies that inspire even others. Some scholars refer to the three as The mastery Trinity. To sum up, good and effective leadership, command and management in the military context serve as the three pillars that support success.ReferencesBeerel, A. C. (2009). Leadership and change management. Los Angeles, SAGE.Boulder.CO. (2009). Military leadership in pursuit of excellence. Boulder, CO, Westview Press.Chapman, B. (2009). Military article of belief a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif, ABC-CLIO.Dudley, M. (2012). An environmental history of the UK Defence Estate, 1945 to the present. London, New York.Ehlen, J., & Harmon, R. S. (2001). Encyclopedia of knowledge management. Hershey, PA, Idea Group Reference.European Conference On Knowledge Management, & Neto, M. D. C. (2010). Proceedings of the 4th European conference on information management and evaluation Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal 9-10 September 2010. Reading, Academic Publishing.Muth, J. (2011). Command culture officer education in the U.S. Army and the German Armed Forces, 1901-1940, and the consequences for World War II. Denton, Tex, University of North Texas Press.Ploch, L. (2009). Africa Command U.S. strategic interests and the role of the U.S. military in Africa. Washington, D.C., Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.Rodt. P.A. (2014).The European Union and Military deviation Management Defining, Evaluating and Achieving Success. Routledge.PressShamir, E. (2011). Transforming Command the Pursuit of Mission Command in the U.S., British, and Israeli Armies. Palo Alto, Stanford University Press.Soeters, J., Fenema, P. V., & Beeres, R. (2010). Managing military organizations theory and practice. London, Routledge.Walker, R. W., & Horn, B. (2008). The military leadership handbook. Kingston, Ont, Canadian Defence Academy Press.Wittmann, J. (2012). Auftragstaktik just a command technique or the core pillar of mastering the military operational art? CHAPMAN, B. (2009). Military doctrine a reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif, ABC-CLIO.Source document

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Related Study Essay

AcknowledgementThe completion of this line of credit was made realistic through the support and encouragements of rough important community and the root members, AlfieCajucom, Rishvert Romano, Dustin Del Rosario and maria Mayella Malang. Friends, Jenina Dela Fuente and Diane Cruz and many signifi rumpt others.The members of the conference is greatly thankful to Mam Rosalita DG..Abello for her comprehensive exploit in assisting us to lie with this affair ventureFin e very(prenominal) last(predicate)y, we argon deep grateful to our Almighty God, from whom we got the needed wisdom and inspiration.INTRODUCTIONThe lifestyle of our military personnel today is totally different from the past few classs. Big and delicate caperes began to spread out. Being young entrepreneurs the free radical members atomic number 18 leave al nonp ariling to organize the risk in putting up a traffic that can make apiece one a successful individual in the future. The pastry gramme is a bu siness of young and brave schoolchilds, who coupled the pastry manufacture in the form of a simple business. The pastry dough Yard denounces delightful produces with an affordable price. It aims to satisfy the palate of their gull market. Competitors impart al delegacys around that is wherefore the members be doing their vanquish to make the separates business successful. The Pastry Yard products has a potential in the pastry industry.I. Company OverviewA. Name of problemTHE PASTRY YARDThe root word decided to choose The Pastry Yard for its business, because YARD means the prototypic letter of the convention members first name. Y for Yella, A for Alfie, R for Rishvert and D for Dustin and summateed PASTRY to signify the concept that the business products is all about pastries.B. Description of the BusinessThe Pastry Yard is a wander type of business. The business decided to propose a business which is inter diversity butterscotch and tarts since they volition al ways be saleable in any season. Foods survey in different varieties and tastes but pastries ar all cartridge clip-favorites so the group makes sure that the products are tasty and delicious. Aside from personal selling and offering, the business conkes its target market through its affordable price that is convenient to the students, teachers, employees and take down the guardian and the parents inwardly the campus of St. bloody shames College of Baliuag.C. Name of the GroupKa BertsThe owners agreed to the name Ka Berts after the name of Rishvert magic Romano who is habituated a pet name Berto acting as the leader of the group.D. Business OwnersNameNationalityAddressRole% of OwnershipMaria Mayella T. MalangFilipinoBahay Pare, Candaba, Pampanga cosmopolitan checkmate25%Alfie G. CajucomFilipinoSulivan, Baliuag, BulacanGeneral Partner25%Rishvert John T. RomanoFilipinoMilflora Homes, Sabang, Baliuag, BulacanGeneral Partner25%Dustin Del RosarioFilipinoPoblacion, Bustos, Bulacan General Partner25%E. Business StructureType of Business Organization leagueThe owners decided to form a partnership type of business makeup for the following reasonsa. The business is easy to establish and start-up costs are low.b. The liabilities are limitedc. With much than one owner, the ability to raise funds whitethorn be increased.d. Partnerships provide moral support and will allow for more creative brainstormingF. Business LocationThe business is located at St. Marys College of Baliuag CampusG. VisionTo build up a half-size business that will offer a unique and savory pastries. cathexisTo provide the clients with the best food experience from beginning to end.GoalsTo encourage people on eating healthier foods especially the students. To introduce pastries to the people reach by the business.ObjectivesTo provide and satisfy people in producing a manikin of product that can help in utilizing resources by means of selling and gaining profit.MARKETING ANALYISA. mart Descrip tionThe Pastry Yard is a business that offers pastries. The business is an reinforcement for the students having a hard time during break time going to canteen because the product itself will find their find their way to its customers. Pastries are non sold in the school canteen that is why the group saw this as a business opportunity to sell to the students who are looking for something to eat.B. cross MarketThe groups target market are the teachers, employees and even the guardian and the parents of the St. Marys College of Baliuag.C. Target AreaThe groups target area is at St. Marys College of Baliuag Quadrangle, located at Racelis St. Baliuag, Bulacan,D. Market DemographicsThe business targets both young-begetting(prenominal) and female with age ranging from 7 age old and supra inside the SMCB Campus.E. ProductsButter scotchTartF. Market PositioningSelling the best pastries at an affordable price is the image wanted by the business.G. priceprice below competitionThe product s price is simply the same with our competitors. This dodging is working best on the groups efforts. It reduces costs and develops life-threatening marketing strategies.ProductThe Pastry YardSMTartPhp. 10.00 eachPhp. 15.00 eachButter scotchPhp. 15.00 eachPhp. 20.00 eachPricing above competitionLocation and exclusivity of product is one factor that affects the pricing quality. The group that stocks high quality of product will convey the potentials in structure a price above their competitors.ProductThe Pastry YardMarketTartPhp. 10.00 eachPhp. 8.00 eachButterscotchPhp. 15.00 eachPhp. 12.00 eachCost gain markup pricingIt is a strategy and it is usually used if there are many products being sold. The group sells tart and butterscotch. The record cost Php. 15.00 and Php. 10.00 and that Php. 15.00 and Php. 10.00. A percentage is added which also served as the profit.PRODUCTCOST selling worthMARK-UP PRICEPERCENTAGETartPhp. 7.00Php. 10.00Php. 3.0030%ButterscotchPhp. 10.00Php. 15.00Ph p. 5.0033%Multiple PricingThis is selling more than one product, with different price. The group is selling one product individually. This multiple pricing is great in markdowns and events, but some consumers tends to patronize this strategy because they can buy products in larger amounts.H.DEMAND AND turn in ANALYSIS (GAP)Consumers will purchase the product in a light price and less of good in higher prices. When it comes to supply producers will sell less of goods in lower price and more goods in higher prices. High school students and faculty members are the common customer. The group menages the demand on the total number of sales which is 210 but not all the students buys the product. The demand is low because the business is just starting and do not have permanent store.SALESPOPULATIONDEMANDsenior high school1208857.38COLLEGE901651.83SALESPOPULATIONDEMAND high1008858.85COLLEGE801652.06I. MARKETING STRATEGIES AND PLANSOur business provides a flashy and good quality of pastry products. Products are assured of its fairishliness and affordability. As a marketing strategy this is done by means of word of speak because every time people buys the products they can talk about it with their colleagues.SELLING CHANNELSThe group members are selling our product personally and it is given over directly to the customers. The group sells the product by roaming around the locality of the school.militant ANALYSISNature of the CompetitionSelling pastry products is totally in demand in the world today. Despite the presence of competitors in the market, the Pastry Yard is footsure that its products are different with a unique characteristics. acquit CompetitorsThe direct competitors of our product are the two groups (C-creations) that sells bake goodies.Strengths and WeaknessesThe pastry industry now a days is getting bigger and it became a tender trend in the market. Pastry Yard basically gives the customers a disaster to taste a delightful and different pastry products. The group flunk is the unavailability of machineries and baking tools in making and producing pastry products.Competitive advantageThe Pastry Yard advantage is selling freshly baked tarts and butterscotch which will satisfy one palate.a. prudence/PERSONNELManagement consists of the interlocking functions of creating corporeal policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing an organizations resources in order to pass on the objectives of that policy.b. OwnershipThe type of business is partnership, before the business starts, the proponents contributed capital and chooses their single role in running the business. The proponent agreed to divide the business profit equally.c. DUTIES AND REPONSIBILITIESCashier accountable in managing the business profitResponsible in preparing business financial statementsProduction OfficerResponsible in processing the products to be soldEnsure the product are impertinent and safe with the best qualitySales CrewResponsible fo r business promotionResponsible for selling the productResponsible for communicating with the customerPurchaserAccountable for buying quality productsEnsuring the cleanliness of the ingredientsd. BACKGROUND AND EXPERIENCESFINANCE incumbent (Cashier)The Finance Officer of the business is Maria Mayella T. Malang. She is a student of bachelor-at-arms of acquisition in Hospitality Management. She is in manoeuver of budgeting and monitoring the coin that are coming from the business. She is responsible for ensuring that the financial statements of the business are complete and accurate.PRODUCTION OFFICERThe Production Officer of the business is Dustin Del Rosario. He is a student of Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management. He is in charge and responsible of the products that are ready for selling. Ensure the cleanliness and the safety of the product.MANAGEMENT OFFICERThe Management Officer of the business is Alfie G. Cajucom. He is a student of Bachelor of Science in Hospitali ty Management. He is in charge for business promotions and responsible in selling the product.MARKETING OFFICERThe market Officer of the business is Rishvert Romano. He is a student of Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management. He is responsible for buying quality pastry products. He is also responsible for ensuring the cleanliness of the products.e. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTSCashier must(prenominal) be a graduate of any 4 year course experience in managing budgetMust be at least 18 years oldProduction OfficerMust be a graduate of any 4 year courseOutstanding communicator skillsfantabulous in quality controlSales CrewMust be a graduate of any 4 year courseMust possess excellent customer service skillsMust be at least 18 years oldPurchaserStrong and confident communicatorMust be a graduate of any 4 year courseMust be at least 18 years old and aboveWEAKNESSThe business do not have its own store for which the buyer can visit and order their favourite(a) goods.Another weakness is that the business buys the product that they offer and just add a little mark ups to earn profit. STRENGTHCustomers want novelty of products thats why the business provides customers options to buy either tart or butterscotch. The Products are affordable and will surely satisfy the customer tummies.IV. bank line OPERATIONSA. PRODUCT DESCRIPTIONA Tart is a baked dish consisting of a filling over a pastry base with an open top not covered with pasty. The pastry is usually rook crust pastry, the filling may be sweet or savory, though modern tarts are usually with yema fillings. A Butterscotch is a chewy flour based pastry like brownies that is baked with peanut toppings.B. PROCESS ascendPastry Yard ordered the product from a source and delivered to the groupready for selling. The group walks around the school to sell the product to the customers who are usually students and teachers.C. INVENTORIESThe raw materials that are used in the business are not owned by our group. Because we are just getting our product in a manufacturer of pastries.PRODUCT DISTRIBUTORBUTTERSCOTCHRONALD TADEOTARTRONALD TADEOE. ready SITEThe Pastry Yard is located inside the school vicinity of St. Marys College of Baliuag Quadrangle.F. PLANT LAY OUTWe usually sell our product at Sacred Heart Building.G. WASTE AND WASTE government activityThe group maintains the cleanliness in the designated area inside the school campus. Separate containers are used to prevent food contamination. Members of the group are obliged to clean and pick up the trash that came from selling tarts and butterscotch.VI. Socio DesirabilityBusiness believes that change starts from within. It is the main reason why the business are built and ceremonious the community, and help individuals in their lives. It increases and promote an economic friendly environment.1. EmployeeThe Pastry Yard owners are also the crew or service staff of the business. The group didnt hire crews because the business is just starting and s till manageable.2. federationThe Pastry Yard wants to shout out the dread for the community and the environment. A ten percent donation will be given to HRM HARMONIES for the debut activities of the said club.3. GovernmentSuccess in business requires a very crucial part in our government. The Pastry Yard pay the obligation amount of taxes when is continue to succeed.4. EnvironmentThe Pastry Yard inspires the community in living in a healthy and clean lifestyles, and how to value and care to our environment. Unlike other businesses that sells pastries, The Pastry Yard knows how to retain and produce a green community. The Pastry Yard promotes the use of reduce, reuse and recycle. pecuniary Assumptions1. The sales of Tart per day are 30 and sales of Butterscotch per day are 25. 2. Purchases of Tart per day are 30 and purchases of Butterscotch per day are 25. 3. The mark up price for tart is 30% while 33% for butterscotch.

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Statistics Course Notes

Defining What Statistics Re tout ensembley Is 1. 1 Nature of Statistics The term Statistics came from the Latin word status which could be translated as state. The usage of this term precisely became popular during the 18 th century where they defined Statistics as the science of c aring with in fashion modelation rough the condition of a state or community. The practice of statistics could be traced back hitherto from the early biblical cartridge clips where they gather figures related to to governance of the state for they agnise the importance of these figures in governing the race.Even until to solar day, worldwide, governments drive intensified their in takeation gathering and veri circumvent(a) widen the scope of their numeral figures cod to the rise of more(prenominal) cost-efficient orders for accumulation shootive development. Some of the forecastly popular figures that be being released by around incessantlyy countries atomic issue forth 18 G ross National Product (GNP), Birth rate, Mortality Rates, Unemployment Rate, Literacy Rates and orthogonal Currency Exchange Rates. in any case, the intention of Statistics is non marchesed to government theatrical role and. Right straightaway, al adjudicately altogether business sectors and fields of poll usage statistics.Statistics serves as the guiding principle in their decision making and attends them hang up with sound actions as supported by the synopsis through in their available in orderion. Indicated below ar approximately of the occasions of Statistics in unhomogeneous fields Medicine Medical Researchers use statistics in exam the feasibility or even the efficacy of unseas unriv botheddly developed drugs. Statistics is in most(prenominal) case employ to downstairsstand the spread of the disease and take aim their prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment (Epidemiology).JDEUSTAQUIO 1 Economics Statistics aids Economists examine internation al and local markets by estimating more or less(prenominal) Key Performance Indicators (KPI) such as unemployment rate, GNP/GDP, substance of exports and imports. It is to a fault employ to forecast economic fluctuations and trends. Market Research derives statistics by conducting surveys and orgasm up decisions from these statistics through feasibility studies or for testing the marketability of a new product.Manufacturing use statistics to assure the quality of their products through the use of taste and testing some of their out be sicks Accounting/Auditing uses have techniques in statistics to examine and check their m atomic heel 53tary books. Education Educators use statistical methods to chink the validity and dependability of their testing procedures and evaluating the actionance of t all(prenominal)ers and students. 1. 2 Basic Concepts We normally hear the word statistics when stack ar gurgleing save to the highest degree basketball or the vital statistics of beaut contestants.In this context the word statistics is utilise in the plural form which scarcely means a numeral figure. But the field of Statistics is non and when frontiered to these simple figures and archiving them. In the context of this course, the definition of Statistics is mainly virtually the study of the theory and applications of the scientific methods dealings all near the info and making sound decisions on this. Statistics is the branch of science that deals with the collection, institution, organization, analysis and interlingual rendition of entropy. Sometimes, gathering the entire collection of elements is very tedious, expensive or even timecon contributeing.Because of this information ga at that placers sometimes resort to collecting scarcely a piece of ground of the entire collection of elements. The term coined for the entire collection of elements is call optioned Population date the sub find of the world is referred as the Sample. JDEUSTAQUIO 2 Population is the collection of all elements beneath consideproportionn in a statistical inquiry tour the assay is a sub knack of a cosmos. THINK Could you say that the entire existence is similarly a essay? The particularisedation of the viriditywealth of interest depends upon the scope of the study.Lets say that if we wish to know the average expenditure of all househ one-time(a)s in Metro Manila, indeed the existence of interest is the collection of all households in Metro Manila. If thither is a take aim to delimit the scope of the study due to some constraints, we could redefine the population of interest. We could delimit the scope of the study to simply specific city in Metro Manila. With this the study would save complicate the collection of all households in ________ City. The elements of the population is non only limited to individuals, it rouse be targets, animals, geographic recordical aras, in some other words, almost anything.Some examples of thinkable populations atomic take 18 the set of laborers in a certain manufacturing plant, the set of foreigners residing on Boracay for a certain day, set of Ford Fiesta produced in the entire Philippines on a month. In any studies involving the use of Statistics, at that place would be at least one attribute of the element in the population which we would be studying. This attribute or peculiarity is what we call variant. proficient resembling in the field of Mathematics, we normally denote a unsettled with a single capital earn i. e. A, X, Z.The variable is a peculiarity or attribute of the elements in a collection that croup consent polar determine for the disparate elements. While an observation is a realized jimmy of the variable, and the collection of these observations is called the entropy. typeface The Department of Health is interested in determining the percentage of children below 12 years old infect by the Hepatitis B virus in Metro Mani la in 2006. Population Set of all children below 12 years old in Metro Manila in 2006 Variable of Interest whether or not the child has ever been infected by the Hepatitis B virus.Possible Observations Infected, never Infected Regardless of whether every element of the selective information on the population or essay is use, it is much tranquilize difficult to convey nitty-gritty to these observations is not summarized. This is the JDEUSTAQUIO 3 reason why it is burning(prenominal) to condense these observations to a single figure to completely describe the entire data. This condensed value is what we call abridgment cadence. The parameter is a summary measure describing a specific characteristic of a population while a statistic is a summary measure describing a specific characteristic of the seek. . 3 Fields of Statistics in that respect be ii major fields in Statistics. The introductory one is (i) Applied Statistics, this deals mainly with the procedures and techni ques utilise in the collection, exhibit, organization, analysis and interpretation of data. On the other hand, the second one is (ii) Mathematical Statistics, which is concerned with the development of the mathematical foundations of the methods apply in Applied Statistics. In this course, we would mostly deal with the bedrock of Applied Statistics. This field could overly by sub- divided up into 2 areas of interest.These dickens are Descriptive and Inferential Statistics. Both are definitive of their names. Descriptive Statistics includes all the techniques used in organizing, summarizing, and handing the data on hand, while Inferential Statistics includes all the techniques used in analyzing the ideal data that leave alone lead to commonplaceizations about a population from which the specimen came from. To clarify, we whitethorn use descriptive statistics for population data or sample data. If we are dealing with population data, therefore the results of the study are applicable only to the defined population.In the same manner, if we use descriptive statistics to sample data, then the conclusions are applicable only to the call fored sample. JDEUSTAQUIO 4 1. 4 statistical Inquiry Statistical Inquiry is a knowing research that provides information exacted to solve a research problem. Oftentimes, researchers go off now find an appropriate statistical technique that relieve oneself help them dissolver their research problems. This is because o the wide troops of applications of the various(a) statistical techniques used in a statistical inquiry. Below is the diagram limning the entire lick of statistical inquiry. musical note 1 Identify the Problem visualize the Study Collect the data Explore the info Analyze data and Interpret the Results Present the Results ill-use 2 musical note 3 trample 4 Step 5 Step 6 JDEUSTAQUIO 5 speculation without data is just an Opinion 2. 1 Measurement The data used for statistical analysi s should al focussings be accurate, complete, and up-todate because the information that we would get is only as unattackable as the data that we give birth. Good quality data comes at a cost but if we tolerate the assurance of obtaining natural information that answers our research problem then it is all worth it.Measurement is the influence of determining the value or label of the variable based on what has been observed. Naturally, our interpretation of the determine in our data will depend on the touchstone ashes or the rule that we used to assign the set to the contrary categories of the variable. In particular, it will depend on the consanguinity among the set used in the ashes. The general trackification used to describe the qualitys of relationship among these value or categories is what is known as directs of quantity. The four trains of amount are nominal, ordinal, detachment and ratio level.It is necessary to know the level of measurement used to measu re a variable because this will help in the interpretation of the values of the variables and choosing the sui tabularise statistical technique to use in the analysis. Ratio level of measurement has all of the following properties a) the proceeds in the system are used to patternify a person/object into discrete, nonoverlapping, and exhaustive categories b) the system clips the categories according to magnitude c) the system has a hardened unit of measurement establishing a standard size of it end-to-end the collection plate and d) the system has an infrangible secret code.JDEUSTAQUIO 6 Some examples of variables with ratio level of measurement are 1. Distance traveled by a car (in km) 2. flower of a flag pole (in metres) 3. Weight of a whole attired chicken (in kilograms) none we will hold forth each(prenominal) of the properties that is required for a measuring scale to produce in order for it to be driveed as having a ratio level of measurement a) The numbers i n the system are used to syllabusify a person/object into distinct nonoverlapping, and exhaustive categories. This primary condition requires that we use categories that would place the observations logically into one and only one category.This means that two objects assigned the same value moldinessiness belong in the same category and be move in a polar category if the characteristics of interest is really different. b) The system arranges the categories according to magnitude. This second property requires that the measurement system must(prenominal) arrange the categories according to all hike or descend order. c) The system has a fixed unit of measurement representing a standard size throughout the scale. The third property requires the scale to use a unit of measure that depicts a fixed and determinate quantity.This means that a one-unit difference must have the same interpretation wherever it appears in the scale. d) The system has an absolute zero. The fourth proper ty requires the measurement system to have an absolute zero or the true zero even out. This means that the scale parcel outs the value, 0 (zero) as the complete absence of the characteristic itself. integrity example of this is any financial measurement where zero means that there is absolutely no money. separation Level of Measurement satisfies only the runner ternary conditons of the ratio level of measurement.The only difference of the interval level of measurement to the ratio level of measurement is the absence of the absolute zero value. This means that the interval level of measurement considers 0 (zero) as a value the like any other numbers and not as the absence of JDEUSTAQUIO 7 the characteristic of interest. The most car park example of this is measuring temperature in Celsius or Fahrenheit(postnominal) where the value zero does not mean that there is no temperature. no. Level of Measurement satisfies only the first two conditons of the ratio level of measurement .The ordinal level of measurement only uses a scale that ranks or orders the observed values in either ascending or descending order. The interval or simply the difference of the scale from one point to another does not need to be lucifer all throughout the scale. For example the ranking of the student in club according to their invests could be tagged as 1 st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and so on. The difference of the grade mingled with the 1st student and the 2nd placed student does not need to be of the same gap between the 4 th placer and the 5th placer.Nominal Level of Measurement satisfies only the first property of the ratio level of measurement. The nominal level of measurement is the weakest level of measurement among the four. This is because its only aim is to relegateify the values into divorce categories without regards to the ordering of these categories in ascending or descending manner. Most often, this level of measurement uses non-quantifiable categories like the differe nt religions, zip code or the student number. 2. 2 Collecting selective information 2. 2 . 1 info Collection Methods The most parklandly used methods for collecting data are i. Use of document Data, ii. ) Surveys, iii. ) Experiments, and iv. ) Observation. Use of Documented Data It is not necessary to use original data in conducting studies sometimes it would make things easier if the researcher uses the data that is already available if there is such one sui dishearten for the study. The only dilemma with apply attested data is its reliability and veracity. Therefore, the researcher must advert ratiocinationly on the source of this data to have a measure on the reliability JDEUSTAQUIO 8 of the data that would be used.Also, these enter data fuel be categorized in to two, the primary data and the secondary data. Primary Data are data documented by the primary source, meaning, the data collectors themselves documented the data. Secondary Data are data documented by a secondary source, meaning, an individual/agency, other than the data collectors, documented the data. Surveys Another crude method of collecting data is the survey. The state who answer the incertitudes in a survey are called the respondents. This method is much more expensive than collecting data using documented stuff.Another problem of using surveys is that reliability of the data depends mainly on the survey move itself, either from the respondent, the survey institution, questionnaire or if it is a personal interview there readiness be a problem with the interviewer if he/she lacks training. The Survey is a method of collecting data on the variable/s of interest by asking people questions. When data came from asking all the people in the population, then it is called census. On the other hand, when the data came from asking a sample of people al handleed from a well-defined population, the it is called a sample survey.Experiments If the researcher is interested in something that i nvolves cause-and-effect relationship, conducting the experimentation is most likely the sui hold over way of collecting data. The most common experiment that is normally conducted during the primary level is the mongo seed experiment. The aim of this experiment is to see the relationship of the growth of the mongo in relation with sunlight exposure, amount of water and the type of soil. The Experiment is a method of collecting data where there is direct human intervention on the conditions that may shanghai the values of the variable of interest.Observation Method The Observation Method is a method of collecting data on the phenomenon of interest by recording the observations do about the phenomenon as it actually happens. JDEUSTAQUIO 9 The observation method is effective in studying the reactions and behavior of individuals or groups of persons/objects in a disposed situation or environment as it happens, For example, a researcher may use the observation method to study the behavior conditions of an indigenous federation of tribes which is difficult to be gathered using the other methods. 2. 2. 2 The examinationnaireThe questionnaire is an operator for measuring which is used in various data collection methods (commonly used in surveys). The questionnaire may either be selfadministered or interview-based which are both(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) explanatory of their names. 2. 2. 2. 1 Type of Questions ? A Closed-ended question is a type of question that includes a listen of reception categories from which the respondent will select his/her answer. ? An Open-ended question is a type of question that does not include response categories. Comparison of Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questions Open-Ended ?Respondent grass freely answer ? Can Elicit feeling and emotions of the respondent ? Can break up new ideas and views that the researcher might not have considered ? Good for mazy issues ? Good for questions whose achievable responses ar e unknown ? altogetherow respondents to clarify answers ? exit detailed answers ? Shows how respondent think ? ? ? ? Closed-Ended Facilitates tabulation of responses Easy to code and analyze Saves time and money High response rate since it is simple and right away to answer ? Response categories make questions easy to take care ?Can repeat the study and easily make comparisons JDEUSTAQUIO Advantages 10 Disadvantages ? Difficult to tabulate and code ? High refusal late because it requires more ? ? ? ? ? Increases respondent to burden when time and endeavour on the respondent Respondents need to be articulate Responses can be inappropriate or vague May threaten respondent Responses have different levels of detail there are also many or in any case limited response categories ? Bias responses against categories excluded in the choices ? Difficult to invent if the respondent misinterpreted the question 2. 2. . 2 Response Categories for Close-ended Questions 1. Two-way Question provides only two alternative answers from which the respondent can chose deterrent example Have you ever traveled outside the country by any means of exaltation? Yes No 2. Multiple-choice Question provides more than two alternatives from which the respondent can only choose one. Example What is your marital status? never marital Divorced/Separated Married Widowed 3. Checklist Question provides more than two alternatives from which the respondent can choose as many responses that apply to him/her.Example What engaging/s of novel do you like to read? Comedy tap Fantasy Sci-Fi Horror Non-fiction Mystery Others, please specify ____________ JDEUSTAQUIO 11 4. rank Question provides categories that respondents have to either arrange from highest to lowest or delinquency versa depending upon a particular criterion. Example Below is a list of considerations in choosing and buying a new l capableop. Put number (1) beside the quality that you prioritize the most, (2) for the second priority and so on. Prize Brand Quality long suit Style Novelty Warranty . Rating home Question provides a graded scale screening all possible directions and intensity of side of a respondent on a particular question or controversy. Example How satisfied are you on the teaching method of your instructor in this course? 1 Very dissatisfy 2 Dissatisfied 3 Neutral 4 satisfied 5 Very Satisfied 6. Matrix Question a type of question which places various questions in concert to save space in the questionnaire. It is like having any of the five preceding types of questions and squeezing more than one question in a form of a table.Example For each statement, please indicate with a checkmark whether you agree or disagree with it Statements Statistics is a very difficult subject Only some people could substantiate Statistics I would rather sleep than study Statistics at home Agree Disagree JDEUSTAQUIO 12 2. 2. 2. 3 Pitfalls to subjugate in Wording Questions 1. Avoid Vague Questions State all question clearly. All respondents must have the same interpretation to a question. If not, their answers will not be comparable, making it difficult to analyze their responses. Example How often do you watch a movie in a movie planetary house?Very Often Often Not too often Never Problem The word often is vague. Instead, you may ask how many times did he/she watched a movie exsert month. 2. Avoid Biased Question A biased question influences the respondents to choose a particular response over the other possible responses. Whether the bias is caused accidentally or intentionally, the data would become useless because it sleek over failed to let on the truth. Example There are many different types of variant like badminton, basketball, billiards, bowling and tennis. Which type of sport d you enjoy watching?Problem The sports mentioned in the first clip will be in the top of the minds of the respondents. It is likely for the respondents to choose from a mong these sports. This will result in a bias against the sports not mentioned in the list. 3. Avoid Confidential and Sensitive Questions These questions usually dispatchend the pride or be the prestige of the respondent. Example Do you bring home office supplies? If yes, how often do you bring home office supplies? Problem The question may sound offensive to the pride of the respondent. 4.Avoid Questions that are difficult to answer Do not ask questions that are too difficult for the respondent to answer truthfully. Such questions would only encourage respondents to hypothesise their answers, if not totally stand firm to answer the question. Example If you are the president of the nation, what are you going to do to attain economic recovery? JDEUSTAQUIO 13 5. Avoid Questions that are misidentify or perplexing to answer Sometimes a poorly compose question can confuse the respondent on how to answer the question Example Did you eat out and watch a movie last weekend?Problem This is a double- ceasereled question, where you combine two or more question in to a single question. You should opt to separate this question into two to avoid confusion. 6. Keep the Questions short and simple pine and complicated question can be difficult to see. The respondent may lose interest in the question because of its length or might have problem comprehending very long statement needed to understand the question. 2. 3 ingest and Sampling Techniques 2. 3. 1 Basic Concepts As we have discussed on the prior Chapter 1, sample is the subset of a population.Some people think that if we are basing our analysis on samples, why dont we just guess our analysis entirely without any data? This question could be partly answered by a quote from Sir Charles Babbage, the Father of the Computer who said that, Errors using inadequate data are much less than those using no data at all. So now, before we can talk about the different try out filling procedures, we need to familiarize ourselves first with some terms. The target population is the population we motive to study The sampled population is the population from where we actually select the sampleIt is good if the target and the sampled population have the same collection of elements. The problem is that often times in life, expectations do not jive well with reality. One example where the target and the sampled population would be different from each other is the case where the target population is the collection of all the residents of Metro Manila. If we would be using a bespeakphone directory to select our sample, this collection would be very different from the target population since this would exclude all the residents that have no land stemma.JDEUSTAQUIO 14 The taste write or frame is a list or office try outing all the take units in the population. In any statistical inquiry, whether the data will come from a census or from a sample, it is authorized that we are conscious of all the pos sible errors that we introduce (hopefully not intentionally) in the results of the study. In order for us to do this and reduce these errors, we need to understand the possible sources of errors, namely, the have errors and the non try out errors.Sampling error is the error attributed to the variation present among the computed values of the statistic from the different possible samples consisting of n elements. Non taste errors is the error from other sources apart from sampling fluctuations Note that the ONLY TIME that the sampling error would not be present is if we have conducted a census. However, census results are NOT ERROR-FREE. census and samples can both have nonsampling errors (simply the errors not brought solely by sampling). primitive Error Nonsampling Error Error in the implementation of the sampling design Measurement Error Sampling Error acquireion Error Instrument Error trunk Error Population Specification Error Response Error affect Error Interviewer Bias Surr ogate Information Error Diagram of the confused Sources of Error JDEUSTAQUIO 15 2. 3. 2 Methods of Probability Sampling Probability Sampling is a method of selecting a sample wherein each element in the population has a known, nonzero chance of being include in the sample otherwise, it is a non prospect sampling method. ? A nonzero chance of inclusion means that the sampling procedure must give all the elements of the sample population an prospect of being a part of the sample.All of the elements that belong in the sampled population must be included in the option process. ? Another requirement of chance sampling is that we should be able to determine the chance that an element will be included in the selected sample. Take note that the probability of each element in the sampled population need not be concern to each other. 2. 3. 2. 1 open ergodic Sampling Simple Random Sampling (SRS) is a probability sampling method wherein all possible subsets consisting of n elements sele cted from the N elements of the population have the same chances of selection.In simple stochastic sampling without replacement (SRSWOR), all the n elements in the sample must be distinct from each other. In simple random sampling with replacement (SRSWR), the n elements in the sample need not be distinct, that is, an element can be seleceted more than once as a part of the sample. The most apparent example of SRSWOR that we could see every day on mass media is the National lottery where the numbers that would be pinched must be distinct and every number should have an equal chance of being selected in the draw. JDEUSTAQUIO 16 Visual representation of Simple Random Sampling without Replacement. 2. 3. 2. 2 Stratified SamplingStratified sampling is a probability sampling method where we divide the population into nonoverlapping subpopulations or strata, and then select one sample from each stratum. The sample consists of all the samples in the different strata. Stratified sampling, in general, simply requires the division of the population into nonoverlapping strata, wherein each element of the population needs to belong to exactly one stratum. Then each sample would be selected form the strata using any probability sampling method. If simple random sampling used for each sample in the strata then this sampling is called stratified random sampling.JDEUSTAQUIO 17 Visually, it might look something like the image below. With our population, we can easily separate the individuals by color. erstwhile we have the strata determined, we need to decide how many individuals to select from each stratum. The most common practice is that the number selected should be proportional. In our case, 1/4 of the individuals in the population are blue, so 1/4 of the sample should be blue as well. giveing things out, we can see that a stratified (by color) random sample of 4 should have 1 blue, 1 green and 2 red. JDEUSTAQUIO 18 2. 3. 2. 3 Systematic SamplingSystematic sampling is a probability sampling method wherein the selection of the first element is at random and the selection of the other elements in the sample is overbearing by taking every kth element from the random start, where k is the sampling interval To select a sample using systematic sampling, we need to perform the following go 1. Decide on a method of assign a unique serial number, from 1 to N, to each one of the elements in the population. 2. Choose n = sample size so that it is a gene of N = population size. Compute for the sampling interval k = N/n. 3.Select a number from 1 to k, using a randomization mechanism. bring up the selected number by r. The element in the population assigned to this number is the first element of the sample. 4. The other elements of the sample are those assigned to the numbers r + k, r + 2k, r +3 k, and so on, until you get a sample size of n. 5. In case that k = N/n is not a whole number the first element would still be r but would be a randomly elect nu mber from 1 to N instead k as used on the previous maltreat. By visual explanation, so to use systematic sampling, we need to first order our individuals, then select every kth.In our example, we requirement to use 3 for k? Can you see why? call back what would happen if we used 2 or 4. JDEUSTAQUIO 19 For our starting point, we dispel a random number between 1 and k. For our visual, lets suppose that we resource 2. The individuals sampled would then be 2, 5, 8, and 11. 2. 3. 2. 4 Cluster Sampling Cluster sampling is a probability sampling method wherein we divide the population into nonoverlapping groups or clusters consisting of one or more elements, and then select a sample of clusters. The sample will consist of all the elements in the selected clusters.To select a sample using cluster sampling, we need to perform the following steps 1. Divide the population into nonoverlapping clusters. 2. Number the clusters in the population from 1 to N. 3. Select n distinct numbers from 1 to N using a randomization mechanism. The selected clusters are the clusters associated with the selected numbers 4. The sample will consist of all the elements in the selected clusters. Cluster sampling is often confused with stratified sampling, because they both involve groups. In reality, theyre very different. In stratified sampling, we split the population up into groups (strata) based on some characteristic.In essence, we use cluster sampling when our population is already broken up into groups (clusters), and each cluster represents the population. That way, we just select a certain number of clusters. JDEUSTAQUIO 20 With our visual, lets suppose the 12 individuals are paired up just as they were sitting in the original population. Since we want a random sample of size four, we just select two of the clusters. We would number the clusters 1-6 and use technology to randomly select two random numbers. It might look something like this JDEUSTAQUIO 21 2. 3. 2. 5 Multistage Sam plingMultistage sampling is a probability sampling method where there is a hierarchical configuration of sampling units and we select a sample of these units in stages. Unlike all the other previously presented sample selection procedures where the process of sampling takes place in a single phase, we accomplish the selection of the elements in the sample under multistage sampling after several stages of sampling. We first partition the population into non-overlapping primary stage units (PSUs) and select a sample of PSUs. We then subdivide the selected PSUs into non-overlapping second-stage units (SSUs) and select a sample of SSUs.We continue the process until we identify the elements in the sample at the last stage of sampling. For example, consider a light-bulb example using two-stage sampling procedure. Lets suppose that the bulbs come off the assembly line in boxes that each contains 20 packages of four bulbs each. One strategy would be to do the sample in two stages story 1 A quality control engineer removes every two-hundredth box coming off the line. (The plant produces 5,000 boxes daily. (This is systematic sampling. ) Stage 2 From each box, the engineer then samples three packages to inspect. (This is an example of cluster sampling. 2. 3. 3 Methods of Nonprobability Sampling All sampling methods that do not satisfy the requirements of probability sampling are considered as nonprobability sampling selection procedures. These methods do not make use of randomization mechanism in identifying the sampling units included in the sample. It allows the researcher to choose the units in the sample subjectively. And since the sample selection is subjective, there is really no way to assess the reliability of the results without so much assumptions (remember assumptions are very prone to mistakes). JDEUSTAQUIO 22Despite this drawback of nonprobability sampling, these methods are still more commonly used since it is less costly and easier to administer. Here ar e some of the most basic nonprobability sampling selection procedures 2. 3. 3. 1 Haphazard or Convenience Sampling In haphazard or convenience sampling, the sample consists of elements that are most accessible or easier to contact. This usually includes friends, acquaintances, volunteers, and subject who are available and willing to participate at the time of the study. The most common example that we could see on the television is the text polls about a certain issue.This type of sampling the opinion of the people doesnt involve randomization mechanism in the selection of the units in the sample. This is sometimes referred to as the nonprobability counterpart of simple random sampling. 2. 3. 3. 2 Judgement or Purposive Sampling The elements are carefully selected to provide a vocalism sample. Studies have demonstrated that selection bias can arise even with expert choice but nevertheless the method may be appropriate for very small samples when the expert has a good deal of inform ation about the population-elements. The two common features of the method are a. sampling units often consist of relatively large groups and, b. ) sampling units are chosen so that they will provide accurate estimates for important control variables for which results are known for the whole population and its hoped that it will give good estimates for other variables that are highly correlated with the control variables. This sampling method may be considered as the nonprobability counterpart of Cluster sampling. 2. 3. 3. 3 Quota Sampling This is considered as the nonprobability counterpart of stratified sampling. In this method, interviewers are assigned quotas of respondents of different types to interview.The quotas are sometimes chosen to be in proportion to the estimated population figures for various types, often based on past census data. The researcher also chooses the groups or strata in the study but the selection of the sampling units within the stratum does not make us e of a probability sampling method. JDEUSTAQUIO 23 2. 4 intro of Data After data collection, we swot and analyze the data, and then we present the results of our analysis in some form that will allow us to reveal and highlight the important information that we were able to extract.Unless we do this, we will only get lost in huge mound of numbers and labels that we have collected. Our grade school teachers already taught us this various phases of presenting the data so why do we need to study this again? We may be familiar with the line graph and the run map but we need to learn or recapitulation the basic principles of compeling a good table and a good graph. With good data presentation, we can discover, and even explore possible relationships. Poor data presentation will only misguide, deceive, and misinform.It is therefore essential that we remember to put a more conscious effort to use these different methods of presentation properly in order to maximize data description and analysis. 2. 4. 1 Textual Presentation Textual Presentation of data incorporates important figures in a paragraph of text. In textual presentation, it aims to direct the readers attention to some data that need particular emphasis as well as to some important comparisons and to supplement with a narrative account from a table or a map. It could also show the summary measures like minimum, maximum, totals and percentages.We do not need to put all figures in a textual presentation we just have to select the most important ones that we want to focus on. Example The Philippine Stock Exchange composite index lost 7. 19 points to 2,099. 12 after trading between 2,095. 30 and 2,108. 47. Volume was 1. 29 billion shares worth 903. 15 cardinal pesos (16. 7milliondollars). The broader all share index gained 5. 21 points to 1,221. 34. (From Free mandated March 17, 2005) When the data become voluminous, the textual presentation is strongly not advised because the presentation becomes almo st incomprehensible.JDEUSTAQUIO 24 2. 4. 2 tabular Presentation Tabular Presentation of data arranges figures in a systematic manner in rows and columns. Tabular presentation is the most common method of data presentation. It can be used for various purposes such as description, comparison, and even showing relationships between two or more variables of interest. We will discuss three types of presenting in tabular form, namely Leader Work, Text Tabulation and Formal Statistical table which is categorized according to their format and layout. Leader WorkLeader work has the simplest layout among the three types of tables. It contains no table title or column divisionings and has no table borders. This table needs an introductory or descriptive statement so that the reader can understand the give figures. The Population in the Philippines for the census days 1975 to 2000 is as follows a 1975 1980 1990 1995 2000 a b 42,070,660 48,098,460 60,703,206b 68,616,536b 76,498,735 National S tatistics self-confidence The 1990 and 1995 figures include the household population, stateless population, and Filipinos in Philippines embassies and mission abroad.In addition, the census plant institutional population found living quarters such as penal institutions, orphanages, hospitals, multitude camps, etc. As you can see, the supra table would not be clear without the introductory statement. Likewise, both have no table numbers that we can use to refer to these figures. Thus, we use the draw work when there are only one or two columns of figures that we can incorporate as part of the textual presentation for a more organized presentation. Text Tabu lat io n The format of text tabulation is a little bit more abstruse than leader work.It already has column indicateings and table borders so that it is easier to understand than leader work. However it still does not have table title and table number. Thus, it also requires an introductory statement so that the readers ca n comprehend the given figures. Similar to leader work, we can place additional explanatory statement in the footnote. JDEUSTAQUIO 25 The Population in the Philippines for the Census Years 1975 to 2000 is as follow a Year 1975 1980 1990 1995 2000 a b No. of Filipinos (in thousands) 42,070. 66 48,098. 46 60,703. 21b 68,616. 54b 76,498. 4 National Statistics Office The 1990 and 1995 figures include the household population, homeless population, and Filipinos in Philippines embassies and mission abroad. In addition, the census comprise institutional population found living quarters such as penal institutions, orphanages, hospitals, military camps, etc. Form al Statistical Table The formal statistical table is the most complete type of table since it has all the different and essential parts of a table like table number, table title, judgement note, box head, stub head, column headings, and so on.It could be a stand-alone table since it does not need any accompanying texts and it could be easily understood on its own. Heading consists of the table number, title and head note. It is regain on top of the table of figures. i. Table number is the number that identifies the position of the table in a sequence. ii. Table title states in telegraphic form of the subject, data furcateification, and place and period covered by the figures in the table. iii. Head note appears below the title but above the top cross rule of the table and provides additional information about the table.Box head consists of spanner heads and columns heads. i. Spanner head is a legend or label describing two or more column heads. ii. Column head is a label that describes the figures in a column. iii. Panel is a set of column heads under the same spanner head. Stub consists of row captions, condense head, and stub head. It is located at the left side of the table. i. Row caption is a label that describes the figures in a row. ii. center on head is a label describing a set of row captions. i ii. Stub head is a caption or label that describes all of the center heads and row captions.It is located on the first row. iv. Block is a set of row captions under the same center head. JDEUSTAQUIO 26 Table number Stub head Title Head note Table 10. 9 Employed Persons by Major Industry Group January 2008 October 2010 (in thousands) Panel Heading Spanner head Column head Industry Group Oct Total Agriculture Center head Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry Fishing 36,488 12,265 10,769 1,496 5,375 197 3,058 163 1,957 18,550 2010 Jul Apr 36,237 12,244 10,760 1,484 5,409 194 3,003 141 2,071 18,585 35,413 11,512 10,073 1,439 5,487 212 3,063 137 2,075 18,414 Jan 6,001 11,806 10,351 1,455 5,322 193 3,009 157 1,963 18,872 Oct 35,478 12,072 10,563 1,509 5,154 169 2,937 160 1,888 18,250 2009 Jul Apr 35,508 11,940 10,476 1,464 5,273 177 2,947 145 2,004 18,294 34,997 12,313 10,841 1,472 5,088 166 2,841 130 1,951 17,595 Jan 34,262 11,846 10,446 1,400 4,856 152 2,849 134 1,721 17,560 Oct 34,533 12, 320 10,860 1,460 5,078 176 2,897 123 1,882 17,135 2008 Jul Apr 34,593 12,103 10,695 1,408 5,130 154 2,960 146 1,870 17,360 33,535 11,904 10,450 1,454 5,000 151 2,883 123 1,843 16,630 Jan 33,693 11,792 10,409 1,383 4,981 152 2,963 126 1,740 16,919Industry archeological site nd Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity, Gas and Water Construction Services in large quantities &038 Retail Trade, Repair of Motor Vehicles, Motorcycles &038 Personal &038 Household Goods Hotels and Restaurants Transport, Storage and conference Financial Intermediation Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities Public validation &038 Defense, Compulsory Social Security Education Health and Social Work Other Community, Social &038 Personal Service Activities Private Households with Employed Persons Extra-Territorial Organizations &038 Bodies 7,158 7,030 6,885 7,064 6,901 ,725 6,681 6,635 6,528 6,599 6,322 6,333 1,119 2,711 412 1,239 1,037 2,704 420 1,166 991 2,741 383 1,061 1,104 2,735 384 1,119 1,012 2,735 3 75 1, ampere-second 1,064 2,694 376 1,090 976 2,628 389 1,023 988 2,660 337 1,044 941 2,587 373 985 984 2,525 369 969 924 2,575 366 953 964 2,674 364 904 bury 1,771 1,165 465 855 1,954 1 1,835 1,238 457 866 1,831 1 1,959 1,156 447 984 1,804 3 1,823 1,146 432 949 2,114 2 1,771 1,168 412 868 1,908 0 1,772 1,157 428 876 2,110 2 1,794 1,068 408 907 1,718 3 1,659 1,157 435 857 1,785 3 1,690 1,096 406 796 1,733 * 1,741 1,076 386 847 1,863 1 ,661 1,028 384 843 1,572 2 1,612 1,083 390 846 1,747 2 Notes 1. Data were taken from the results of the quarterly rounds of the Labor Force Survey (LFS) using past week as reference peri od. 2. Details may not add up to totals due to rounding. 3. The definition of unemployment was revised starting the April 2005 round of the LFS. As such, LFPRs, employment rates and unemployment rates are not comparable with those of previous survey rounds. Also starting with January 2007, estimates were based on 2000 Census-based projections. 4. Data are as of Janua ry 2012. / previous source note Source National Statistics Office (NSO). footnote JDEUSTAQUIO 27 2. 4. 3 Graphical Presentation Tabular Presentation of data portrays numeral figures or relationships among variables in pictorial form. The graph or statistical graph is a very powerful tool in presenting data. It is an important median(a) of communication because we can create a pictorial representation of the numerical figures found in tables without showing too many figures. We construct graphs not only for presentation purposes but also as an initial step in analysis.The graph, as a tool for analysis, can exhibit possible associations among the variables and can facilitate the comparison of different groups. It can also reveal trends over time. The different types of statistical graphs are line chart, plumb bar chart, horizontal bar chart, pictograph, pie chart, and statistical map. It is important to know when and how to use these different charts. The selection of the correct type of chart depends upon the specific objective, the characteristic of the users, the kind of data, and the type of device and aterial on hand. Line graph The line chart is useful for presenting historical data. This chart is effective in showing the front end of a serial publication over time. As shown in the figures below, the try can be increasing, decreasing, stationary, or could be fluctuating. Title at slip by Scale figures for y- axis vertebra 20 No. of Accidents involving Company B during their Years of Service No. of Accidents Scale label for y-axis 15 10 Grid lines 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Footnote Source Note Years of Service Scale label for x-axisScale figures for x-axis JDEUSTAQUIO 28 NEVER use line charts/graphs that are too stretched either horizontally or vertically, for it may mislead the person looking at the graph and interpret it as something that it is not really representing. JDEUSTAQUIO 29 Types of Line chart Simple Line Chart This has only one curve a nd is appropriate for one series of time data. Multiple Line Chart This type of line chart shows two or more curves. We use this if we wish to equalize the trends in two or more data series.Although the use of Multiple Line Chart is now commonly used, it should be taken notice the number of series that you include in a graph, if there are a lot of series in a single chart, it might become too confusing to see. Number of Daily Responses (Example of Single Line Chart) JDEUSTAQUIO 30 Co lu m n Chart We use the column charts to par amounts in a time series data. The emphasis in a column chart is on the differences in magnitude rather than the movement of a series. ? We can also use the column chart to graph the oftenness distribution of a numerical variable.We call this chart a oftenness histogram. ? For time series data, we arrange the columns on the horizontal axis in chronological order, starting with the earliest date. Title at Top Grid lines Scale label for y-axis Scale figur es for x-axis Scale figures for y-axis The proportions of the columns must be just right. Columns must not be too wide or too narrow. The space between the bars must also be just right. Usually, the space between bars is around one-fourth of the comprehensiveness of the column. It is also advisable to use scale figures that are multiples of 5.If the observed values are so small, we can use multiples of 1 or 2. JDEUSTAQUIO 31 Horizontal Bar Chart Its use is appropriate when we wish to show the distribution of prostrate data. We use the horizontal bar chart so we can compare the magnitudes for the different categories of a qualitative variable. We place the categories of the qualitative variable on the yaxis. This will be more practical than placing the categories on the x-axis because there is more space for text labels on the y-axis. Just like the column charts, the bars should not be too wide, too narrow, too long and nor too short. Arranging the bars according to length usually facilitates comparisons. It may be decreasing or ascending order. ? If there are Others category, we always place this as the first or the last category. ? If the categorical variables have a natural ordering, such as a grade scale, then we should retain the order of the categories in the scale instead of system the bars according to length. ? We should always choose appropriate colors or patterns for the bars. We should avoid selecting wavy and weird patterns since this will only produce an optic illusion.JDEUSTAQUIO 32 Pie Chart It is a circle divided into several elements. individually section indicates the proportion of each fixings or category. This is useful for data sorted in to categories for a specific period. The purpose is to show the component parts with respect to the total in terms of the percentage distribution. The components of the pie chart should be arranged according to magnitude. If theres an Others category, we put it in the last section. We use different colors, shading, or patterns to distinguish one section of the pie to the other sections.We darn the biggest small-arm at 12 oclock. If we want to emphasize a particular sector of the pie chart, we may explode that slice by detaching it from the rest of the sectors. The pie chart is applicable for qualitative rather than quantitative data. However, if the variable has too many categories (more than 6), we should use the horizontal bar chart rather than the pie chart. JDEUSTAQUIO 33 Pictograph o It is like a horizontal bar chart but instead of using bars, we use symbols or casts to represent the magnitude. o The purpose of this chart is to get the attention of the reader. The pictograph provides an overall picture of the data without presenting the exact figures. o Usually, we can only show approximate figures in a pictograph since we have to round off figures to whole numbers. It still allows the comparison of different categories even if we just present only the approximate val ues. o The choice for the symbol or picture should be apt for the type of data. It should be selfexplanatory, interesting, and simple. Statistical Maps ? ? ? ? ? This type of chart shows statistical data in geographical areas. This could also be called as crosshatched maps or shaded maps.Geographic areas may be barangays, cities, districts, provinces, and countries. The figures in the map can be ratios, rates, percentages, and indices. We do not use the absolute values and frequencies in statistical maps. JDEUSTAQUIO 34 Types of Statistical Maps ? Shaded Map map that makes use of shading patterns. The shading pattern indicates the degree of magnitude. It usually runs gradually from dark to light (Darker shading of the map usually means larger magnitude). ? Dot map chart that gives either the location or the number of establishments in a certain geographical area.The example below is a dot map of the number of people with Hispanic decent in the US. JDEUSTAQUIO 35 2. 5 Organization of Data The first step in data analysis is organizing the collected data. In its organized form, important features of the data become clear and apparent. The two common forms of organized data are the array and the frequency distribution 2. 5. 1 Raw Data and Array Raw Data are data in their original form. The actual data that we collect from surveys, observation, and experimentation are what we call raw data. Raw data have not thus far been organized or processed in any manner.Example Raw Data of the Final Grades of 100 Selected Students who took Stat 101 79 62 74 79 81 65 79 94 75 52 73 85 78 82 83 79 73 81 88 81 74 60 92 86 86 60 90 64 57 63 88 63 87 69 77 53 76 52 72 89 66 56 57 92 82 66 70 72 73 63 88 77 60 97 70 92 67 92 50 65 72 74 79 51 86 55 67 66 79 95 60 93 66 99 89 94 97 78 55 79 77 92 93 92 50 65 79 62 56 77 53 72 57 62 80 79 76 82 74 76 Array is an staged arrangement of data according to magnitude. We also refer to the array as sorted data or ordered data Arranging t he observations manually according to magnitude is very tedious especially if we are dealing with voluminous data.Thus, it is more convenient to use computer programs to sort the data. The array is not a summarized data set. It is simply an ordered set of observations. We consider both the raw data and array as ungrouped data. JDEUSTAQUIO 36 Example Array of the Final Grades of 100 Selected Students who took Stat 101 50 50 51 52 52 53 53 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 60 60 60 60 62 62 62 63 63 63 64 65 65 65 66 66 66 66 67 67 69 70 70 72 72 72 72 73 73 73 74 74 74 74 75 76 76 76 77 77 77 77 78 78 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 79 80 81 81 81 82 82 82 83 85 86 86 86 87 88 88 88 89 89 90 92 92 92 92 92 92 93 93 94 94 95 97 97 99 2. 5. oftenness Distribution (FDT) The frequency distribution (FDT) is a way of summarizing data by showing the number of observations that belong in the different categories or programmees. We also refer to this as grouped data. The frequency distribution is another way of organizing the data. It is a summarized form of the raw data or array wherein we do not see the actual observed values anymore. The two general forms of frequency distribution are single-value grouping and grouping by variant intervals 1. Single-value grouping is a frequency distribution where the severalisees are the distinct values of the variable.This is applicable for data with only a few unique values. 2. sort out by frame Intervals is a frequency distribution where the screen outes are the intervals. Example Suppose we have data on the number of children of 50 married women using any modern contraceptive method. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 JDEUSTAQUIO 37 Since there are only 6 unique values in the data set, then we use single-value grouping, Distribution of Married Women Using Any fresh Method of Contraceptive by Number of Children No. of Children 0 1 2 3 4 5Number of Married Women 7 8 11 14 8 2 C oncepts related to absolute frequency Distribution 1. come apart Interval is the range of values that belong in the folk or category. 2. elucidate Frequency is the number of observations that belong in a material body interval. 3. Class Limits are the end numbers used to define the grad interval. The lower clan limit (LCL) is the lower end number while the speed furcate limit (UCL) is the hurrying end number. 4. Open Class Interval is a correct interval with no lower class limit or no upper class limit. 5. Class Boundaries are the true class limits.If the observations are rounded figures, then we identify the class boundaries based on the standard rules of rounding as follows the lower class boundary (LCB) is halfway between the lower class limit of the class and the upper class limit of the preceding class while the upper class boundary (UCB) is halfway between the upper class limit of the class and the lower class limit of the next class. 6. Class size is the size of the class interval. It is the difference between the upper class boundaries of the class and the preceding class or the difference between the lower class boundaries of the next class and the class. . Class Mark is the midpoint of a class interval. It is the average of the lower class limit and the upper class limit or the average of the lower class boundary and upper class boundary of a class interval. JDEUSTAQUIO 38 After learning the concepts that we need to construct a frequency distribution table, we can now list down the steps in constructing a frequency distribution table. localise the adequate number of classes denoted by K Step 1 We can use the Sturgess rule to approximate the number of classes which is given by K = 1+ 3. 322(log n) Determine the range, R = highest observed value smallest observed Step 2 value Compute for the pre-class size C = R/K Step 3 Determine the class size, C, by rounding-off C to a convenient Step 4 number Choose the lower class limit of the first class. Make sure that the smallest Step 5 observation will belong in the first class. List the class intervals. Determine the lower class limits of the suceeding classes y adding the class size to the lower class limit of the previous class. The last lass Step 6 should include the largest observation. Step 7 Tally all the observed values in each class interval Sum the frequency column and check against the total number of Step 8 observations After constructing the basic frequency distribution table, we could now add some other components to it that would help us in the analysis of the data. o o sexual congress Frequency is the class frequency divided by the total number of observations Relative Frequency Distribution parting (RFP) is relative frequency multiplied by 100. JDEUSTAQUIO 39 The relative frequency and RFP show the proportion and percentage of observations falling in each class. The RFP allows us to compare two or more data sets with different totals.The s um of the RFP column is one hundred percent (100%). Another component that could be added to the FDT is the accumulative frequency distribution which is comprised of two components. o o The less than cumulative frequency distribution (CFD) shows the number of observations with values higher than or equal to the lower class boundary. Example Using the data of the Grades of 10o Students who took Stat 101, we would construct the frequency distribution table with the extra components RF, RFP CFD. First, we will compute for K using the Sturges rule, K = 1 + (3. 322*log n) = 1 + (3. 322*log 100) = 1 + (3. 322 *2) = 7. 644 ? Secondly, we compute for the range, R R = max. value min. value = 99 50 = 49 Third, compute for C and eventually C C = R / K = 49 / 8 = 6. 125 ? 7 Now we can create the FDT for the data set, Class Limits LCL 50 57 64 71 78 85 92 99 UCL 56 63 70 77 84 91 98 105 Class Boundaries LCB 49. 5 56. 5 63. 5 70. 5 77. 5 84. 5 91. 5 98. 5 UCB 56. 5 63. 5 70. 5 77. 5 84. 5 91. 5 98. 5 105. 5 Frequency f 11 13 13 19 19 11 13 1 n=100 Class Mark x 53 60 67 74 81 88 95 102 RF f/n 0. 11 0. 13 0. 13 0. 19 0. 19 0. 11 0. 13 0. 01 RFP % 11 13 13 19 19 11 13 1 CFD 11 24 37 56 75 86 99 100 CFD CFD 100 89 76 63 44 25 14 1JDEUSTAQUIO 40 Graphical Presentation of the Frequency Distribution We can in effect interpret the frequency distribution when displayed pictorially since more people understand and comprehend the data in graphic form. In this section we would discuss the various method of presenting the frequency distribution in graphical form. 1. Frequency Histogram The frequency histogram shows the overall picture of the distribution of the observed values in the dataset. It displays the class boundaries on the horizontal axis and the class frequencies on the vertical axis. The frequency histogram shows the cast of the distribution.The area under the frequency histogram corresponds to the total number of observations. The tallest vertical bar shows the frequency of the class interval with the largest class frequency. 2. Relative Frequency/ Relative Frequency Percentage Histogram The RF or RFP histogram displays the class boundaries on the horizontal axis and the relative frequencies or RFPs of the class intervals on the vertical axis. It represents the relative frequency of each class by a vertical bar whose height is equal to the relative frequency of the class. The shape of the relative frequency histogram and frequency histogram are the same.JDEUSTAQUIO 41 3. Frequency polygonal shape For the frequency polygon, plot the class frequencies at the midpoint of the classes and connect the plan points by means of straight lines. Since it is a polygon we need to close the ends of the graph. To close the polygon, add an additional class mark on both ends of the graph wherein both ends have the frequency of 0. The advantage of the frequency polygon over the frequency histogram is that it allows the construction of two or more frequenc y distributions on the same plot area. This facilitates the comparison of the different frequency distributions.The frequency polygon also exhibits the shape of the data distribution. JDEUSTAQUIO 42 4. Ogives The ogive is the plot of the cumulative frequency distribution. This graphical representation is used when we need to determine the number of observations below or above a particular class boundary. The less than ogive is the plot of the less than cumulative frequencies against the upper class boundaries. On the other hand, the greater than ogive is the plot of the greater than cumulative frequencies against the lower class boundaries. Connect the successive points by straight lines.If we superimpose the less than and greater than ogives, the point of intersection gives us the value of the median. The median divides the ordered observations into two equal parts. JDEUSTAQUIO 43 Summary Measures Part 1 3. 1 Measures of Central Tendency The average is the popular term that is us ed to refer to a measure of central mark. Most are already accustomed to thinking in terms of an average as a way of representing the collection of observations by a single value. For instance, we often use the average score to represent the scores in the exam of all students in a class.We can say that if the average score is high, then we conclude that the class performed well. The average could also be used to compare the performance of two groups based on the average of both groups and comparability which one has the higher average. The most common measure of central tendency is the arithmetic mean. The two other measures of central tendency that we will present in this section are the median and the mode. All of these measures aim to give information about the center of the data or distribution. 3. 1 . 1 Summation NotationThe heart and soul notation provides a compact way of constitution the formulas for some of the summary measures that would be discussed in this section. Th e capital Greek letter sigma,? is the mathematical symbol that represents the process of summation. The symbol, ? is equal to X1 + X2 + X3 + + Xn where Xi = value of the variable for the ith observation i = index of the summation (the letter below ? ). 1 = lower limit of the summation (the number below ? ). n = upper limit of the summation (the letter above ? ). We read ? as summation of X sub i, where I is from 1 to n.JDEUSTAQUIO 44 S