Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Introduction Some Time In The History Of The Universe, No One Is Quite

Introduction Some time in the history of the universe, no one is quite sure when, there was born a man. This man would eventually be the first to found a monotheistic religion. The name of this man is Zoroaster; the name is actually a corruption of Zarathushtra. Zoroaster's birth date, along with whether his religion is actually monotheistic, is a subject of great debate. The opinions concerning his birth, and consequently about the beginning of this great religion, range from as early as 6000 years before Plato to as late as 500 B.C.E. In any case he was born somewhere in Iran, although whether in the East or West is also arguable. In the early writings the people belonging to this religion are called Zarathustris; the system he taught is called Mazdaism. The present day followers are called Parsees. Zoroaster removed the multiplicity of deities from religion and created a faith in which there were two, or perhaps, one God. All other higher beings were regarded as demons, or evil spirits. No one knows for sure the different stages of popularity that Zoroastrianism experienced. We do know that at the time of Darius I, 558?-486 B.C.E., it was protected by royalty. Later, however, Zoroastrians were continually chased by the members of the Islamic religion through Kathiawar in India, and Surat, and finally they settled again in Bombay. The universe is the battleground. The opponents are Mazda Ahura, later to be known as Ahura Mazda, and Anra Mainyu, later call ed Ahriman. Ahura Mazda is the good force and the bad is Ahriman. The battle will last till Ahura Mazda defeats Ahriman in the year 12,000 (we are now presumably around 11,500). This is the world and its future in accordance with Zoroastrian beliefs. Zoroaster Zoroaster had a very non-conforming mind and was forced to flee his parents' house without his parents' consent because of the rebuking he gave to those who sacrificed catt le or drank intoxicating haoma. He fled to the mountains and gave himself to God. Sometime between the ages of thirty and forty an angel appeared to him and brought him to the throne of the highest God, Ahura Mazda. After this occurred, the prophet tried for twelve years to convert people, but to no available. During this period many visions were revaled to him. A milestone in the progression of the religion occurred when Zoroaster converted Vishtaspa,the king of Persia. He also converted the king's son, brother, counsellor, and grand vizier. Zoroaster married, along with two other women, the counsellor's daughter. Zoroaster was killed at the age of seventy-seven by Ardshataspa, a neighboring prince, who invaded Vishtaspa's capital. According to the Parsees, Vishtaspa is the father of Darius, who reigned from 521-485 B.C.E. Another view holds that Zoroaster lived 258 years before Alexander the Great; he would have therefore lived between 570 and 500 B.C.E . The Greeks tend to place him six thousand years before Plato. Ahura Mazda, while not necessarily discovered by Zoroaster, was found on an inscription dating around 714 B.C.E. In ancient Persia, before Zoraoster's reforms, religion was polytheistic. Zoroaster objected to these dieties and referred to them as demons. Many of the rituals and Gods that he removed were later reinstated due to the fact that the people were still emotionally attached to them. We can see this from the fact that on the epigraphs of Artaxerxes II Mnemon (404-358 B.C.E.) the Mithras and Anahita, ancient gods, are mentioned. Temples and images of God were also introduced into the religion at a later date. Zoroastrian Beliefs The Zoroastrian religion is based on the fundamental concept of a constant battle of good against evil. The good is represented by Ahura Mazda while the bad is represented by Ahriman. Ahura Mazda created this world as a trap for Ahriman. Human beings draw Ahriman into this world; he will jump at any chance to cause others to do evil. He will then be entering Ahura Mazda's world, and when people choose good over evil voluntarily this will weaken Ahriman to the point where he can be destroyed. It is hard to reconcile the two opposing views on the dieties in the Zoroastrian religion. The claim is made

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Why do you need to prep for the SAT

Why do you need to prep for the SAT SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you thinking about how much to prep for the SAT, or whether you should even prep for the SAT? This article answers your questions on that! The Origins of the SAT When the ETS (the folks who make the SAT) began, way back in 1947, college admission was based entirely on high school records and admissions counselors’ opinions of students’ â€Å"character.† Obviously, this was a bad way to form a student body and also extremely unfair. There had to be some way to assess all the students in the country uniformly to be able to compare between them. The Challenge of the SAT But how do you test â€Å"scholastic aptitude,† as the SAT used to claim it did? You have to use only material that everyone has been taught in school, or it’s unfair. You have to make it multiple choice, or grading would be impossible (the essay is an attempt to bypass some of the limitations of multiple choice testing). They’re not trying to test subjects, they’re trying to test reasoning: â€Å"to think, understand, and form judgments by a process of logic; to find an answer to a problem by considering various possible solutions† (adapted from the New American Oxford Dictionary). But there are lots of systems in which logic operates: which to choose? What They Decided to Do In an effort to be fair to â€Å"language people† and â€Å"math people† alike, they chose to include both systems in their test of â€Å"scholastic aptitude.† (They had to change this acronym because many people claimed that the SAT was not an accurate test of scholastic aptitudenow the letters â€Å"SAT† technically don’t stand for anything.) But, inevitably, the standardization of the testfrom student to student and year to yearrequired that they use the exact same elements of these two subjects, phrased in the exact same way, in every test. So they ended up with a test that has the same question formats testing the same concepts over 170 questions per test, 7 tests per year, for as many years as they can get away with not changing it. Because this test can make or break a student’s college options (and, arguably, his or her life options), each question has to be totally airtightno exceptions, no way to interpret the answer in multiple ways. The point of all this is that the SAT is, by definition, an extremely rigid, consistent and unintuitive testand those 3 aspects of it make SAT prep almost a necessity for most students. Test Format The ETS tests (SAT, GRE, and TOEFL, among others) are unlike any other test you’ve ever taken. They’re held in these specific places and times, have multiple sections about alternating subjects, and are extremely particular about what you are and aren’t allowed to use (e.g. a calculator and a watch are fine; your phone is not). This aspect alone is something everyone who cares to do well on the test should be prepared for. Question Format Originally, the ETS claimed that the test was designed not to require preparationafter all, reasoning is reasoning, right? But out here in the real world, people were learning different. Eventually the College Board (the people who own the SATETS only designs and runs it) was compelled to produce some limited preparation materials in response to public pressure. One main reason for this is that the questions on the SAT are both strangely worded and totally predictable, a combination practically designed to benefit those who prepare for the test. For example, a common Math question type is formatted like this: If someone tells you it’s opposite day, which of the following must be true? I. It is opposite day II. It is not opposite day III. The person is lying A: I only B: II only C: I and II only D: I and III only E: I, II and III Don’t think too hard about this one. The point is that this question seems much harder than it is, because this is an insane way to phrase a question. Good SAT prep (including PrepScholar) will familiarize you with how to handle these question types, among others that will almost definitely confuse students who have never seen them before. Question Content The content of the SAT, on the other hand, will be familiar to most high schoolers. The highest levels of math it requires are some complicated algebra and plane geometry; all the English skills it requires are basic tenets of writing. In fact, the content of the SAT has been pretty much the same since the 50s. The addition of the Writing section in 2005 was the biggest recent change to the test, but it’s just as formulaic and consistent as the others, for the reasons we discussed earlier in this post. The consistency of the content of the SAT is perhaps the most compelling reason to prep thoroughlyit asks about things that may seem random to the unprepared, but are actually part of a very narrow band of language and math skills. Similarly, the content that the SAT doesn’t test can be helpful to know, because it’s easy to get distracted by thing that seem odd about a question but aren’t actually ever tested. The Takeaway If you’re trying to plan your SAT prep, this blog post should be able to help you out. You don’t have to prep with us, but you should prep with something. The ETS tried to make a pure test of reasoning, but it can’t be done. The result is an idiosyncratic, seemingly random, set of topics and questions for which it is essential to prepare. And if you found this helpful or interesting, please share it or consider joining the mailing list to get our updates and insights 1-2 times per week! Also, get our FREE EBOOK on SAT Prep:

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Extending Retail Services in China Research Paper

Extending Retail Services in China - Research Paper Example Coca-Cola, an American-based soft drink manufacturer has had to adapt to the Chinese environment so as to emerge as a leading soft-drink manufacturer in the country. Thus, this paper gives the history and nature of China and its people and the etiquette of business in the country. It further evaluates the cultural, economic, political and legal environment in the country. Using information from various secondary sources, the paper analyses the experience of Coca-Cola in China, as a case study of the impact of a country’s economic, cultural, political and legal environment on international business. The Political and Legal Environment in China China has been governed by the Chinese Communist Party, CCP for about 63 years since 1949 when it assumed power through a civil war victor. Nonetheless, Ambler, Witzel and Xi (2009) observe that there has been tremendous transformation in the political culture and institutions over this period of time. Even though this party upholds a mon opoly of power and does not tolerate being questioned, Lawrence and Martin (2013) consider the political system as being neither rigidly hierarchal nor monolithic. This form of centralized government is referred to as Maoism by Peteghem and Zhang (2010). The formal political culture of the Chinese upholds collective leadership, the military as a wing of the CCP and strong legislature on paper but weak in practice. In China, politics go hand in hand with commerce and discipline could be executed by the Communist party. The government of China is largely involved in the primary businesses in the country. Devonshire-Ellis (2011) observed that out of the 46 Chinese companies that were listed in the Fortune 500, 40 were state-owned. This author notes that as soon as a business becomes viable, government interest takes over. Apparently, instead of the returns from these businesses ending up in state coffers, they filter down to state officials (Hamilton & Zhang, 2012). Similarly, to succe ed in business, there is need to establish appropriate networks with these officials, referred to as guanxi (Peteghem & Zhang, 2010). This causes difficulties with regards to transparency in China and among the business executives that are engaged in business in the country. This becomes particularly difficult when dealing with the US and EU companies where corruption amounts to a serious crime. China’s legal reform process began in the past about a decade aimed at motivating the opening of its markets having joined the World Trade Organization, WTO. One of the legislative policies of China is to reduce its control over state-owned enterprises (Sweeney, 2010). The authorities of China have the approval process relatively centralized such that it integrates national, regional and local authorities vertically. The law in China distinguishes companies depending on their capital source. Domestic companies typically have less than 20% foreign shareholding while Foreign Investment Enterprises, FIEs could be Foreign Invested Companies Limited by Shares, FICLS, Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises, WFOEs or joint ventures. A legal entity would be determined majorly by the kind of investment being undertaken, such as being a direct acquisition or joint venture. Even though the laws of China could allow foreign investors to make a choice from a variety of investment entities, it could occur that the investment destination could be

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Integrated Marketing communication Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Integrated Marketing communication - Assignment Example have to be included to create space or new roles and responsibilities brought in by the new concept brought about by the Girls next-door TV show (Clow & Baack, 2012). The external stakeholders include customers, those who watch the TV show and those who are against it. All these people will be affected by the new events because some customers will like the idea and some may not want to be associated with it. The show lovers could be attracted to the Olive Gardens’ restaurants while those who are against the show may decide to cut their link with the restaurants (Clow & Baack, 2012). For casual observers of media, the Sexiest Girls of Olive Garden will appear to be a sponsorship because of several factors. First, the show will feature the name of the restaurant, which to them will mean that it is sponsored by Olive Gardens. Secondly, Olive Garden had not accepted or denied whether it funds the show or not. Therefore, for casual observers of the media, they would ride on the notion that the show is funded by the restaurant. This event is an instance in which damage-control programs were in order. Olive Garden is understood through a brand and image of family, friends and fun. However, despite the fact that Kendra Wilkinson mentioned Olive Garden as a genuine fan and with sincerity, it came as a promotion strategy. This is the damage that the Sexiest Girls of Olive Garden show seems to control. This show is a follow up event of what had already occurred (James, 2007). I agree with Kendra Wilkinson that Olive Garden could afford to appear a little edgy without detracting from its family friendly brand. Olive Garden is not just about family but also about friends and fun. Therefore, appearing edgy would center on the fun part of its brand. Olive Garden will be able to attract the people who watch The Girls Next Door who are not its customers yet. They could join the Olive Garden fraternity as friends or even family because these groups exist among the watchers.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Historical and Current Roles in Higher Education Research Paper

Historical and Current Roles in Higher Education - Research Paper Example Historically, education served as a mechanism through which the public good was advanced. However, currently, this ideology has changed over the years and new roles erupted. For instance, the societal benefits of education have changed to individual benefits. Institutions are equipping the students with the necessary skills that will enable them to fit in the job market. Therefore, the modern role of education is value addition (Hensley,  Galilee-Belfer, & Lee,  2013). The perception that education is the only existing gateway to the middle-class has increased the demand for education in the modern society. Therefore, more institutions have come up in order to fill this gap. However, this has affected the quality of education in the country (Lansverk, 2013). This is because institutions are now highly concerned about the numbers they admit rather than the quality of the information being disseminated to the students. Education is currently perceived as a one time investment expenditure. As a result, parents are willing to spend a fortune in order to equip their children with education. This has played a significant role in increasing the overall costs of college education. In an attempt to get a share of the mega profits, private institutions that are run using a business model have mushroomed. It is believed that education leads to the improvement of public health and welfare. As a result, the government has been instrumental in ensuring that more children gain a degree. In order to achieve this ambition more institutions of higher learning have been established. This explains the reason why the number of both the public and private institutions have increased tremendously. It is believed that education increases happiness, improve the living standards of a household and improve the financial management of the individuals. The government feels that it has a role of improving the living

Friday, November 15, 2019

Pediatric Care Against Bullying

Pediatric Care Against Bullying Objectives List at least three client centered learner objectives. The objectives must be client centered, measurable, and time specific. Clients will verbalize understanding what â€Å"bullying† is by the end of the teaching session. Clients will verbalize understanding of the types of bullying by the end of the teaching session. Clients will verbalize understanding of what to do if they encounter bullying by the end of the teaching session. Growth and Development Expected List the age group being taught. I presented my teaching project to a fourth grade class of 9 and 10 year olds. Describe the physical development of this age group. Include information regarding height, weight, muscle structure, fat distribution, bone development, dental development, etc. In this age group, height increases about two inches each year. Weight increases about four to six pounds each year. Along with the increased height and weight, muscle mass also increases. However, the muscles are not functionally mature and are more prone to muscle injury. As height increases, body fat percentage decreases and is replaced by muscle. The skeletal bones continue to harden (ossify) throughout this developmental period. Girls begin to develop faster than boys do and begin to grow taller than boys. This is also the stage of development in which the deciduous teeth are replaced by the permanent teeth. Describe the cognitive development of this age group. Include information regarding the ability to think through operations/problem –solve, ability to learn concepts, reading comprehension, level of understanding, Piaget’s stage, ideas about morality, spirituality, etc. According to Piaget, school-aged children are in the concrete operational stage, which means they make judgements based on their reasoning. The school-age child’s egocentric thinking is also replaced by the social awareness of others. School-aged children can think logically about objects and events. They are able to voice their opinions and think critically. Additionally, this age group is also capable of concrete problem-solving. They achieve conservation of weight by age 9. They also achieve the ability to classify, sort objects and are able to put things in chronological order. For example, school-aged children can classify objects of several features and can place them in order in a series, including dimensions such as shape or size. Reversibility is now possible. School-aged children can reverse simple arithmetic problems. This age group also now has a longer attention span. They have the ability to read more complex sentences that use complex words As egocentric thinking is replaced by logic thinking, school-aged children become more aware of moral standards and conciseness. They now do not solely think about just the consequences, but they can now judge an act by the intention that stimulated it. They clearly understand the difference between right and wrong. As far as spirituality, children are very eager to learn about God. They also are very curious about heaven and hell. They view God as a human and their description of Him is loving, kind, and helpful. They also tend to think that misbehavior will cause them to go hell and good behavior will gain them entrance to heaven. At this age, children also petition their prayers to God. Describe the psychosocial development of this age group. Include information regarding explanation of Erikson’s developmental stage, interaction with peers, interaction with family members, involvement in sports/clubs, hobbies, self-concept, etc. In the school-aged, school plays a major role in the resolution of the developmental crisis of industry versus inferiority. Children learn that they can win recognition of teacher, parents, and peers by doing well in school or mastering a task. The attitudes and opinions of others also become very important. When children master a skill that they have attempted, it helps them to form a positive self-concept of themselves. They develop a sense of who they really are. However, when a goal is not mastered, feelings of inferiority and self-doubt arise because children feel like they failed. These children are most interested in friends and social activities. They enjoy group adventures and cooperative play. The peer group is very important to school-aged children. It is through interaction with the peers that children learn how to put up with those who have strong personalities. Additionally, it is also through peer groups that children socialize and gain independence from their parents. The lack of peer group associations can lead to bullying and feelings of rejection. However, peer groups are not the most influential when it comes the school-aged child. The parents ultimately shape the child’s personality, values, and standards for behavior. Children in this age group also acquire hobbies. They also like to collect things and many enjoy reading and writing. Describe the language development of this age group. Include information regarding ability to articulate thoughts, vocabulary, clarity of speech, dialect among peers, etc. School-aged children learn different words and their meanings. Their knowledge of words is enhanced by reading. Reading also allows the school-aged child to explore and imagine. They also begin to consolidate expressive language skills and learn to express themselves verbally. This age group is also beginning to follow complex instructions. They are able to follow those demands without the use of visual aids. They can read more complex and sophisticated sentences. Additionally, they can express themselves through writing and speaking with more complex and sophisticated words. Describe the fine motor development of this age group. Include information regarding writing ability, scissor skills, dressing self, tying shoes, using utensils, craft making, typing, etc. The school-aged child’s fine motor skills mature and handedness improves. With the maturation in fine motor skills, they also begin to master unlimited varieties of hand crafts. The fine motor skills of children in this age group are smoother and stronger than when they were younger. This increased body control allows them to work on strengthening other skills such as writing, drawing, using scissors, typing, and many other things. However, capabilities ranges are wide among children in this age group. Some may excel in one activity while others struggle. Describe the gross motor development of this age group. Include information regarding walking, maintaining balance, coordination, jumping, reaching, play/activities involving motor movement, etc. The gross motor development of this age group of school-aged children is smoother and stronger than when they were younger. They also have better coordination, balance, and endurance than the younger years. This increased body control allows school-aged children to improve on strengthening physical skills, such as speed and strength in sports and other physical activities, such as running and dance. Some children among this age group will have better endurance, coordination, and balance than others. Some may excel in sports, while others may just enjoy playing with friends and peers fun. POST-IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION Objectives Evaluation Were the learner objectives met? Evaluate each objective. †¢Clients will verbalize understanding what â€Å"bullying† is by the end of the teaching session. Goal met. Clients verbalized an understanding of what â€Å"bullying† is by stating the definition of bullying by the end of my teaching session. †¢Clients will verbalize understanding of the types of bullying by the end of the teaching session. Goal met. Clients verbalized an understanding of the different types of bullying by stating the different types of bullying by the end of the teaching session. †¢Clients will verbalize understanding on what to do if they encounter bullying by the end of the teaching session. Goal met. Clients verbalized an understanding of what to do if they encountered bulling by stating what they would actually do by the end of my teaching session. Assessments List two identified strengths of the teaching project. One of the strengths of my teaching project is that it was simple, yet age appropriate for the age group that I presented to. Another strength of my teaching project is as I presented the project, I asked questions throughout the presentation. I did this so that I could evaluate the cognitive development and language development of this age group List two identified weaknesses of the teaching project. One of the weakness of my teaching project is that when I presented, I felt that I was talking too fast. Another weakness is that I was very apprehensive when presenting my teaching project. However, that soon passed as I presented the teaching project. Growth and Development Observed Describe the physical development of this age group in comparison of what was listed as expected. Physically, children in this age group were of all different shapes and sizes. Some were more naturally stockier and some were skinnier than others. Some of the children had more body fat than others, while some had more muscle mass. Many of the girls were taller than the boys. While some of the boys were still taller than the girls. Some of the children were short and stocky. Some were tall and stocky. Some of the children were tall and skinny, while others were short and skinny. I also noticed that when some of the children smiled, that they had acquired their permanent teeth. Describe the cognitive development of this age group in comparison of what was listed as expected. Cognitively, the school-aged children were able to think critically about my teaching topic. They also were able to correctly answer the questions that I asked them and shared their own opinions about my teaching project topic. In addition, they also were able to judge acts or actions by the intentions that stimulated those acts or actions. While presenting my teaching project, the students were actually able to tell me reason why people bully other people. They were also able to tell me who can be bullies and who can be bullied. They had logical responses to my questions and actually critically thought about the questions I asked them before answering. Describe the psychosocial development of this age group in comparison of what was listed as expected. The children seemed to be independent and obedient. They also socialized with their peers. Boys tended to spend time with boys and girls with girls. However, the children did interact with peers of the opposite sex. Describe the language development of this age group in comparison of what was listed as expected. This age groups language development was very sophisticated. They expressed their opinions about things using a vocabulary that was complex, but age appropriate. They answered questions using sophisticated words and were able to verbalize their feeling and opinions clearly. Describe the fine motor development of this age group in comparison of what was listed as expected. This age groups fine motor skills varied widely. Some of the children’s handwriting was neat and readable, while some of their handwriting was difficult to decipher. The children also had pictures of activities that required cutting and scissors posted on the walls of the school. Describe the gross motor development of this age group in comparison of what was listed as expected. During recess, I saw the children make use of their smoother, stronger gross motor skills. There were children running and playing outside during recess as I left the school. I also saw students that were playing soccer and jump roping. References Provide an annotated bibliography for the references used. A minimum of three sources must be utilized. Annotated Bibliography Franks, J. K. (2013). The relationship between strengths in youth and bullying experiences at school. Educational Child Psychology, 30(4), 44-58. This article discussed how bullying impacts one’s self-esteem and self-perception of themselves. In addition, this article also discussed the emotional, social, and academic effects of bullying. The information about the consequences for both bullies and those who are bullied was also provided in detail. This article was a helpful resource because it not only provided detailed information about the consequences of bullying and the psychosocial effects of it, but it included evidence-based research information about bullying. Hockenberry, M.J., Wilson, D. (2013). Wong’s essentials of pediatric nursing (9th ed.), Health Promotion of the School-Age Child and Family (pp.457-475). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. In this textbook, it provides information about the characteristics of bullies and those who bully. The long term effects of bullying are also discussed in this text. Information about why people bully was also provided in this textbook. This textbook was a very helpful resource because it provided detailed information about the characteristics of bullies and those who are bullied. In addition, it also provided detailed information about the long term effects and consequences of bullying. Park, C. (2014). Children And The Duty To Report: The Double Standard Of Child Abuse And Anti-Bullying Laws. Indiana Law Review, 47(3), 843-869. This article discusses why it is important to recognize bullying and put a stop to it. It also gives the definition of bullying and describes the different types of bullying. This article was also a very helpful because it stressed the importance of standing up to bullies and putting and end bullying. In addition, it provided a very detailed definition of bullying and the different types of bullying.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Leadership philosophies

There are many types of leadership philosophies that all require a clearness of purpose to be successful. Their difference lies in their approach to dealing with the subject of leadership and followership. It is essential to define leadership philosophy first before engaging in a long discussion on the types that comprise it. So what is exactly a leadership philosophy? Encarta defines philosophy as 1. Examination of basic concepts: the branch of knowledge or academic study devoted to the systematic examination of basic concepts such as truth, existence, reality, causality, and freedom2. School of thought: a particular system of thought or doctrine 3. Guiding or underlying principles: a set of basic principles or concepts underlying a particular sphere of knowledge 4. Set of beliefs or aims: a precept, or set of precepts, beliefs, principles, or aims, underlying somebody’s practice or conduct Leadership philosophy is therefore based on a set of ideas and beliefs that set the ex ample to how many people experience their lives or envision their future. Leadership philosophy is an understanding combined with a purpose for the aim of advancing the general good.Leaders use different and various philosophies to motivate their followers whether those are citizens or employees. The type of philosophy adopted by a leader usually depends on the outcomes desired. For instance, a common type of leadership philosophy adopted by business employers is enlightened philosophy where the ideas of the employees themselves are used to change, improve and advance the organization. The leader assumes the role of the guide and inquires into what people would like to see within the organization thereby effectively involving them in the process and making them feel useful.The employees or followers give their opinion, suggest the ideas they would like to see in reality coming out and compose a plan through which to achieve that. This all is done under the directive leadership of a person who assumes the role of counselor, advisor and guide without imposing his views on the process and thereby securing both the involvement of the followers as well as their productive happiness since they would feel more useful when they can contribute to improving their lives with their ideas.Not all philosophies work or achieve the desired effect. One of the less successful philosophies, in contrast to the successful enlightening type of leadership philosophy that has already been mentioned, is called the â€Å"groupthink†. It is very similar to the enlightening philosophy where the people are supported to give their opinion and share their ideas. However what makes the groupthink less desirable as a leadership philosophy is that it mainly supports the person who develops the idea but does not examine the idea in itself.(Baird) As a consequence of this, bad policies are often made official since the leader's role was limited to supporting instead of both supporting and criticizing the ideas that were developed. It is therefore essential that a leader combines between the role of guide and critique in an open discussion of ideas exchange to both secure the inclusion of only good ideas as well as keep the atmosphere competitive and fresh which would not happen if all ideas are passed.The next type of leadership philosophy to be examined is called the autocratic leadership and it is a style that is, as the name might suggest, full of tyranny and despotism which makes it thus very similar to dictatorship and completely different from the two types of leadership styles that have been mentioned so far and that are more democratic in nature. The autocratic leadership style is mainly seen in governments just like the enlightening leadership philosophy is mainly applied in businesses.The autocratic style involves more negative than positive sides and that is mainly because the type of rule associated with it is one of complete control and lack of freedom which goes against human's most basic need and essential human aspect. Though this style is more likely to be found in governments businesses do have tyrants themselves. For instance a CEO may fire any employee who does not agree with him which connotes lack of diversity and a suffocated repressed atmosphere where the worker or citizen is not able to achieve his true potential.The next example in leadership philosophy is the servant style of leading others. While most leaders tend to lead others with the assumption that that requires a certain traditional superior attitude, experience and research have proven that the inclusion of the followers in the process is more likely to produce the desired results. A more humble and less arrogant attitude is therefore more appreciated from the leader himself. It is understandable and logical to think of leaders as little bit over the top figures who are in a way part of the group but still above it.But as stated, this approach might not produ ce the best environment for all and therefore a servant leadership style is the best solution for the problem. Servant leadership opposes autocratic leadership and as has been exemplified autocratic leadership usually fails. Paul McDaniel in his article How to Practice Servant Leadership illustrates the role of the servant leader very clearly and eloquently in the following words A servant leader acts as a steward to the organization's financial, human, and other resources.Servant Leadership emphasizes trust, empathy, collaboration, and the ethical use of power. At the heart of servant leadership, the individual leader of an organization is a servant first. He or she makes a conscious decision to lead in order to better serve others, not to increase his or her own power. The servant leader's objective is to enhance the growth of individuals in the organization and increase teamwork and personal involvement. It is interesting to observe these different types of leadership and to also reflect on what makes one more successful than another.In the case of servant leadership versus autocratic leadership the leader assumes the role of a humble servant to the others in the group thereby getting closer to them and assuring them that what matters is the advancement of the goals and the achievement of their purpose. After all true leadership emerges from the true desire to help others. Through becoming more familiar with the group one assures that positive change is more assured as he can allocate the different tasks in a more effective manner to those who can perform them best.It also guarantees the trust of the follower in the leader when the latter's personality and agenda are better understood. Servant leadership is a way through which to foster trust into each other and creates an environment where the voice of every member counts which makes a joyful working and living environment more possible. Enlightening, autocratic and servant leadership have been mentioned s o far. The next types of leadership philosophy that deserve a closer inspection are the ethical leadership†¦..and the collective leadership. The latter is hard to define since it is still a relatively new area which makes and many people have different theories about it. Collective leadership has been defined by Alain Gauthier as Co-leadership that embraces the diversity of people and perspectives and frees up self-initiative and collective intelligence. When practiced across sectors, it creates the conditions for societal learning and innovation through an increased sense of interdependence and a deeper trust in self-organization.It is commonly agreed that it incorporates cultural and technological resources in a manner that allows people to work together better for the advancement of the community's prosperity. Collective leadership is only possible when the members of a group have formed a closer bond with each other and therefore can work better together. Collectivity after all is more about the â€Å"we† than the â€Å"I†. Ethical Leadership is when the leader is very familiar with the essential values of his convictions and has the vision and courage to live up to them and include them in his work and realization of his goals.Ethical leadership combines between the inner values and beliefs of the leader in question and the behavior and external conditions of the outside world. People who want to make a difference need to combine between their vision, and all that comes along with it in terms of integrity and clearness of purpose, and their commitment to do well and make a difference. Ethical leadership assumes that only through embracing the inner journey one can really express and realize the outer one. To understand what makes a person a leader it is essential to first grasp what differentiates him from a follower.A person does not need to be a hero to be a leader. Leadership does not come in one form or type and different type of pe ople suit different forms of leadership. Leadership does not have a gender requirement. Men and women can both lead. The secret lies in convincing others of your ability to realize their dreams and advance the common good. As stated leadership comes in many forms just like the leader does. People naturally differ in how they define the word in itself and nobody can say that their vision is right or wrong since the issue is broad and left to different interpretations.Followers naturally expect leaders to show them things and set for them an example. They expect the leader to take care of their needs and therefore it follows that being a leader is neither an easy job nor one that anyone can conduct regarding the many responsibilities attached to it. Leadership philosophies are based on the vision and experiences of the leader. Leadership is never stagnant as it is always a subject of continues development depending on the circumstances and the different ideas the leader himself might develop over time.Leadership philosophy is therefore a subject of continues growth regarding its attachment to the human nature who is never stagnant and always seeks change and new ideas. Many of the leadership philosophies that are practiced nowadays were used by the Marine Corps and involve â€Å"Justice, judgment, dependability, initiative, decisiveness, integrity, loyalty and enthusiasm†(Leadership Philosophies). Each of these terms will be given a ore thoughtful explanation in the following regarding the importance of each word in defining the various leadership philosophies and understanding them.Justice makes an individual more consistent and better valued. It makes the leader avoid criticism of favoritism and therefore decreases the tension in the group. The ability to use judgment to avoid being accused of favoring one person above the other is therefore very important for a leader. Dependability on the other hand is â€Å"is the willing and voluntary support of th e policies and orders of the chain of command† (Wright, 1984/2002). Being dependable means being reliable and therefore trustworthy which are obviously great and essential characteristic in a leader.Along with this goes initiative that shows enthusiasm and sets the example. A good leader needs to always set the right and best example to inspire the followers. (Leadership Philosophies) Decisiveness shows the ability to make a decision and therefore the ability to lead. This again increases the trust of the group in the leader and secures success. Loyalty on the other hand shows commitment to the group and its goals and enhances the trust of the people in the leader. It shows integrity and honesty and these are essential traits of a good leadership philosophy.Leadership philosophies are very different but at the core they have the same purpose in mind which is leading. Leaders are thus guided by their leadership philosophy. The question that might arise in relevance to the diffe rent types of leadership is whether it is better as a leader to be feared or loved. As has been discussed previously autocratic leadership is less successful than the enlightening or servant form of leadership. However, Harvard professor Scott Snook provides a different interpretation of the issue.He illustrates through two examples that different leadership styles do not necessarily result in the success of one above the other. He argues that leadership is essentially influenced by human nature and therefore by the philosophy of the person in charge. Though different in approach both leaders still have the same vision which is success and achievement of goals. He provides the following two examples to enhance this theory further. Bobby Knight Bobby Knight, also known as â€Å"The General,† is the head coach at Texas Tech University.He’s a fiery, in-your-face taskmaster who leads through discipline and intimidation, which some critics say goes too far. Knight was fired from a long career at Indiana University for grabbing a student, and prior to that he was filmed clutching one of his own players by the neck. And then there was the infamous incident during a game when Knight tossed a folding chair across the court to protest a referee’s call. Mike Krzyzewski Mike Krzyzewski, also known as Coach K, leads the men’s basketball program at Duke University.Instead of fear, Krzyzewski relies heavily on positive reinforcement, open and warm communication, and caring support. For Coach K, â€Å"It’s about the heart, it’s about family, it’s about seeing the good in people and bringing the most out of them,† says Snook. (Ambler) Both coaches achieved desirable results with their teams despite the different leadership philosophies they believed in. To be successful in one of these types of leadership it is however essential to be fully convinced of it being the right style for you.Ones actions have to be in harmony w ith one's words and that is only guaranteed if the leader knows where he stands. The success of a leadership philosophy therefore depends on the leader's full awareness and adherence to it which is the only way through which to guarantee the right implementation of it. Leadership is about inspiring others. This leads the discussion to creative leadership where leaders search for opportunities and introduce change through discovering them.Creative leadership is about solving problems no matter what they are as it evolves around finding new and creative methods to approach things. Creative leadership inspires people to do great things and encourages them to always improve their performance and keep their attitude at all times positive and forward-looking. People perform the required task for a manager but an inspirational leader makes them do their entire best and put all their effort in, not only for financial reasons but because they feel inspired. The following picture illustrates the working dimension of inspirational or creative leadership.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Explore the theme of loneliness in of mice and men Essay

Whilst reading the novel, ‘Of Mice and Men’ it becomes apparent that loneliness, is one of the main themes that is carried throughout the book. This theme is symbolised in almost every character, each expressing loneliness in their own way. From Crooks, the misunderstood black man who wasn’t always discriminated against; Curley’s Wife, the only woman on the ranch who had dreams of being something much bigger, to the leading characters George and Lennie. Whether they are mentally alone or whether they have a fear of being alone, they all express loneliness. We are first introduced to the theme of loneliness when George is talking to Lennie about life on a ranch and how men on a ranch live compared to how they live, saying â€Å"Guys like us that work on ranches are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. They don’t belong no place†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..With us it ain’t like that. We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn about us† Lennie eagerly finishes George’s description of them saying â€Å"But not us! An’ why? Because†¦ I got you to look after me and you got me to look after me† From this conversation alone it is obvious to us that George and Lennie are on completely different wavelengths intellectually, Lennie being extremely childlike, thinking and speaking like a toddler would, and George being a father-like figure, getting frustrated when Lennie doesn’t understand him, or when he doesn’t remember something he’s been told, as Lennie pointed out, physically, they are not alone, physically, they do have each other and although Lennie isn’t intellectually able enough to understand, mentally, George is alone, travelling and holding conversations with a man who has the mental ability of a 3 year old would not be enough to take away the feeling of loneliness. Although Lennie isn’t alone, he has a subconscious fear of being alone, of being abandoned by George, and like most children, he has a constant urge to have a companion, a pet, so that even when he is ‘alone’ he has something with him, this is shown through his constant petting of animals, dead, or alive â€Å"Jus’ a dead mouse, George†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ I could pet it with my thumb while we walked along† the fact that Lennie subconsciously fears being alone becomes very apparent when Crooks suggests that George may not come back, Lennie becomes very aggressive, very quickly â€Å"S’pose he gets killed or hurt so he can’t come back† Like an animal, his fear turns to anger and he moves to attack ‘He stood up and walked  dangerously towards Crooks. â€Å"Who hurt George?† he demanded’ his fear of being without George is his fear of being alone. While Lennie is with Crooks, Crooks is heard saying â€Å"S’pose you couldn’t go into the bunk house and play rummy ‘cause you was black. How’d you like that?† This connects to an earlier quote in the book, saying that in Crooks’ room, there were a pair of ‘large, gold-rimmed spectacles’ and Crooks’ mentions to Lennie that his father owned a ranch and â€Å"the white kids came to play at our place, an’ sometimes I went to play with them, and some of them was pretty nice† this shows us that Crooks’ wasn’t always discriminated against, he wasn’t always alone, in a lot of ways its worse for Crooks’ than a lot of other black men, because he isn’t so used to it, he knows what it’s like not to be alone, whereas most black men have never known anything else, Crooksà ¢â‚¬â„¢ also speaks out about his loneliness to Lennie saying â€Å"Books ain’t no good. A guy needs somebody-to be near him. A guy goes nuts if he ain’t got nobody. Don’t make no difference who the guy is, long’s he’s with you. I tell ya, I tell ya a guy gets too lonely an’ he gets sick† Crooks’ has a loneliness which is never-ending, he can’t change it. Curley’s wife is the only woman on the ranch and the only female woman in the book. Curley is possessive of her, he makes out that she belongs to him and that no one else can have her, that no one else can talk to her. Curley wants the other men on the ranch to know that they can’t communicate with her, he is threatening towards the men about his wife constantly being suspicious of them demanding they tell him where she is even if they don’t know, he worries about her being unfaithful, so gets very aggressive when he thinks she has given anyone ‘the eye’ and it can often lead to fights due to his hot-tempered personality, at one point, he thinks Lennie is laughing at the fact that he can’t find his wife and that is when a fight between them occurs, this makes the men wary of talking to her, or even, being near her. Curley doesn’t like her communicating with the other men, so she has no one to talk to. At one point when talking to Lennie she is heard saying â€Å"I never get to talk to nobody. I get awful lonely’. Because she is lonely, she always seeks attention, and the only way she knows how to get attention is through her looks. Her over-the top appearance only highlights her desperation to be noticed by someone, anyone. The only people she ever see’s refuse to talk to her because they think she’s a ‘tart’ and they see her as ‘jailbait’, they refuse to communicate  with her because they don’t want to start anything with Curley. Curleys wife’s obliviousness to what the men think of her only becomes obvious when she’s talking to Lennie, she questions him â€Å"What’s the matter with me? Ain’t I got a right to talk to nobody? Whatta they think I am, anyways?† She is oblivious to that fact that, the more she tries to get noticed the more the men on the ranch will steer clear from her. Overall, I think the loneliest character in the novel would be George, because, not only does he end up physically alone, but, throughout the book he is always alone, whether there are people around or not, he is mentally alone and with Lennie to look after and look out for he must be mentally exhausted after just one conversation with Lennie, his patience and obvious love for Lennie, is in the end the reason he is completely alone, without Lennie, without anyone, from the beginning of the book. George had loneliness coming towards him, whether he knew it or not, he was bound to end up alone, the life he claimed he ‘wanted’ the life that he said would be so much ‘easier’ a life without Lennie, by the end of the book, George is one of those men that work on a ranch, by the end of the novel George is one of the ‘loneliest guys in the world’

Friday, November 8, 2019

Free Essays on No Children Here

There are no Children Here Alex Kotlowitz's book, There are no Children Here, deals with the subject of race, values, and community responsibility of the urban underclass. The American inner city deals with the issues such as violent crime and drug wars. With these two explosive issues, the neighborhood experiences the downward spiral of social separation, unemployment and welfare dependence. The lives of two black boys, Lafayette, 10 and Pharaoh, 7 are followed as they struggle to grow up in one of Chicago's worst housing projects. Lafayette and Pharaoh are not any different than many of their neighbors. Their mother is welfare dependent. Their father is an alcoholic and drug abuser. In the home, there are other siblings, an older brother and sister along with younger triplets, just like so many other families in the area. Kotlowitz takes you into an offensively maintained housing project infested with gangs, where murders and shootings are an everyday thing. The image of the devastation and the despair of no hope of the people living inside the project are vivid. One can truly sense the hopefulness, grasping the loss of family and ardently desire a new life for the boys. You hold out hope that things will work out for the boys. In America's minefield of urban life, Lafayette and Pharaoh are surrounded by violence and poverty through their lives. The neighborhood had no banks, no public libraries, no movie theatres, no skating rinks, or bowling allies. The lack of respectable businesses only contributes to the demise of the neighborhood and unemployment in the area. With the drug lords keeping shop in an abandoned building, drug abuse is rampant and shooting is common. There were no drug rehabilitation programs or centers to help combat the problem. Police feared going into the ghetto for their own safety. There are no Children Here embraces Lafayette and Pharaoh over a two-year period in which they struggle with school, attemp... Free Essays on No Children Here Free Essays on No Children Here There are no Children Here Alex Kotlowitz's book, There are no Children Here, deals with the subject of race, values, and community responsibility of the urban underclass. The American inner city deals with the issues such as violent crime and drug wars. With these two explosive issues, the neighborhood experiences the downward spiral of social separation, unemployment and welfare dependence. The lives of two black boys, Lafayette, 10 and Pharaoh, 7 are followed as they struggle to grow up in one of Chicago's worst housing projects. Lafayette and Pharaoh are not any different than many of their neighbors. Their mother is welfare dependent. Their father is an alcoholic and drug abuser. In the home, there are other siblings, an older brother and sister along with younger triplets, just like so many other families in the area. Kotlowitz takes you into an offensively maintained housing project infested with gangs, where murders and shootings are an everyday thing. The image of the devastation and the despair of no hope of the people living inside the project are vivid. One can truly sense the hopefulness, grasping the loss of family and ardently desire a new life for the boys. You hold out hope that things will work out for the boys. In America's minefield of urban life, Lafayette and Pharaoh are surrounded by violence and poverty through their lives. The neighborhood had no banks, no public libraries, no movie theatres, no skating rinks, or bowling allies. The lack of respectable businesses only contributes to the demise of the neighborhood and unemployment in the area. With the drug lords keeping shop in an abandoned building, drug abuse is rampant and shooting is common. There were no drug rehabilitation programs or centers to help combat the problem. Police feared going into the ghetto for their own safety. There are no Children Here embraces Lafayette and Pharaoh over a two-year period in which they struggle with school, attemp...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Overview of Cnidarians

Overview of Cnidarians A cnidarian is an  invertebrate  in the Phylum Cnidaria. This phylum includes  corals, sea anemones, sea jellies (jellyfish), sea pens, and hydras. Pronunciation: Nid-air-ee-an Also Known As: Coelenterate, Coelenterata Characteristics of Cnidarians Cnidarians  exhibit radial symmetry, which means their body parts are arranged symmetrically around a central axis. So, if you drew a line from any point at the edge of a cnidarian through the center and to the other side, youd have two roughly equal halves. Cnidarians also have tentacles. These tentacles have  stinging structures called cnidocytes, which bear  nematocysts.  Cnidarians got their name from these stinging structures.  The word cnidarian comes from the Greek word  knide  (nettle).   The presence of nematocysts is a key feature of cnidarians. Cnidarians can use their tentacles for defense or for capturing prey.   Although they can sting, not all cnidarians pose a threat to humans. Some, like the box jellyfish, have very potent toxins in their tentacles, but others, like moon jellies, have toxins that dont have enough power to sting us. Cnidarians have two body layers called the epidermis and gastrodermis. Sandwiched in between is a jelly-like substance called  mesoglea. Examples of Cnidarians   As a large group comprised of thousands of species, cnidarians can be pretty diverse in their form. Overall, though, they have two main body plans: polypoid, in which the mouth faces up (e.g., anemones) and medusoid, in which the mouth faces down (e.g., jellyfish). Cnidarians may go through stages in their life cycle in which they experience each of these body plans. There are several major groups of cnidarians: Anthozoa:  sea anemones, sea pens, and corals. These animals have a  polypoid body plan and attach to a substrate, such as other animals, rocks or algae.Hydrozoa:  hydrozoans, also known as hydromedusae or hydroids. These organisms alternate between polyp and medusa stages and are usually colonial organisms. Siphonophores, which include Portuguese man-of-war and by-the-wind sailors, are examples of animals in the Class Hydrozoa. Most cnidarians are marine organisms, but there are some hydrozoan species that live in fresh water.Scyphozoa or Scyphomedusae:  true jellyfish  are in the Class Scyphozoa. These animals are known for their bell shape with dangling oral arms. Some jellyfish have tentacles also. The lions mane jellyfish is the largest species, with tentacles that may stretch more than 100 feet.Cubozoa:  box jellyfish. These animals have a cube-shaped bell, with tentacles dangling from each corner. The sea wasp, a type of box jellyfish, is said to be the most venomo us marine animal.Staurozoa: stalked jellyfish or Stauromedusae.  These strange-looking, trumpet-shaped animals arent free-swimming like regular jellyfish.  Instead, they attach to rocks or seaweed and are typically found in cold water. Myxozoa:  Ã‚  parasitic microorganisms that evolved from jellyfish  There has been debate over the years over where these animals should be classified - the latest research places them in the Cnidaria phylum, and an important piece of evidence is that these creatures have nematocysts.  Myxozoa species can affect fish, worms, amphibians, reptiles, and even mammals. One economic impact is that they can affect farmed fish such as salmon. Smallest and Largest Cnidarians The smallest cnidarian is a hydra with the scientific name  Psammohydra nanna. This animal is less than half a millimeter in size.   The largest non-colonial cnidarian is the lions mane jellyfish. As mentioned above, the tentacles are thought to stretch more than 100 feet. The bell of this jellyfish can be over 8 feet across. Of colonial cnidarians, the longest is the giant siphonophore, which can grow to over 130 feet. Sources de Lazaro, E. 2015. Myxozoans: Widespread Parasites Are Actually Micro Jellyfish. Accessed February 27, 2016.Ocean Portal. Jellyfish and Comb Jellies. Accessed February 27, 2016.  Sadava, D.E., Hillis, D.M., Heller, H.C. and M. Berenbaum. 2009. Life: The Science of Biology, Volume 2. Macmillan.University of California Museum of Paleontology. Introduction to the Hydrozoa. Accessed February 27, 2016.WoRMS. 2015. Myxozoa. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species. February 27, 2016.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Case study reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Case study reflection - Essay Example Reflections: Coaching, learning, and the learner In order to respond to changing customer demands, workplace learning, as a subset of the greater literature on knowledge management, has becoming increasingly paramount. One of the most common approaches to workplace learning and leadership development is coaching. Coaching is a â€Å"process through which supervisors may communicate clear expectations to employees, provide feedback and suggestions for improving performance, and facilitate employees’ efforts to solve problems or take on new challenges† (Heslin et al., 2006 cited in Liu and Batt, 2010, pp.269-270). It trains people through regular interactions that help employees take up effective work skills and behaviours. The study by Liu and Batt (2010) propose a model, where they stress that there is a positive relationship between coaching and job performance (Agarwal, Angst, and Magni, 2009; Kets de Vries, 2005), but the former note there is weak empirical evidence, because these studies employed perceptual measures and approximated performance differences between individuals, as product differential treatments of coaching (Liu and Batt, 2010, p.271). ... I agree that coaching impacts individual performance over time, depending on numerous factors, such as teaching and leadership style of the coach and the learning style of the subordinates or trainees (Agarwal, Angst, and Magni, 2009). I experienced coaching several subordinates and it helped a great deal that I focused on knowing them first, before I developed my coaching approach. For instance, some people are very independent workers. They do not appreciate constant monitoring from their coaches. Others, however, need more direct coaching. The fundamental concept behind interpersonal relationships and coaching effectiveness can be explained by the process consultation approach. Hackman and Wageman (2005) talk about different coaching theories, such as the process consultation approach developed by Schein (1969, 1988 cited in Hackman and Wageman, 2005, p.270). Schein argues that proficient interpersonal relations are indispensable for effective task performance and that group membe rs themselves must participate in analysing and improving those relationships. The consultant, or in this case, the coach, engages member involvement in examining group processes on two levels concurrently: 1) â€Å"the substantive level†- to study how human processes are influencing work on a particular organisational problem, and 2) â€Å"the internal level†- to better comprehend the team’s own interface processes and the ways that team processes cultivate or encumber effective group functioning (Schein, 1988, pp. 11–12 cited in Hackman and Wageman, 2005, p.270). Lee (2009) argues that a skilled, shrewd facilitator, who moulds interpersonal skills and dispositions essential for effective team work, can make the

Friday, November 1, 2019

Summary of a chapter of book Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Summary of a chapter of book - Essay Example It has been found out that adolescents learn better about the world around them, including those they have not physically visited, through the internet. Active participation in discussions makes them more informed, contrasting the idea that learning is most effective within the four walls of the classroom. In fact, adolescents with writing skills are not just able to express their thoughts and publish them online. They also develop as they are given feedbacks and pieces of advice on how to make their works better. Animation is another skill that is shared and developed through internet interactions. Asians like the Japanese who are highly skilled in the art grow as they share their works, receive critiques and develop their English communication skills as well while they communicate with people around the globe. Moreover, internet games are not limited to entertainments but also include learning. Online games incorporate stories that inform the players and encourage them to be intera ctive in the development of the games or for some; they are influenced to write their own stories and experiences of the games they played. This shows that literacy is not achieved only within the classroom but also in a bigger world, the virtual