Saturday, March 30, 2019

Countless stereotypes and negative representations exist

Countless classifys and veto understandations existI. incoming A countless stereotypes and negative representations exist ab stunned the in- betwixt einsteinium by the horse opera media. It is don that media is precise powerful source that shapes peoples minds and opinions. For any(prenominal) people, media is the only source they acquire their discipline by dint of, especi wholey when it comes to some other farmings and populations. Hesperian media c overage of the center field easterly issues, Arab, and Islamic military man is clearly a nonstop subject. These stereotypes and negative representations collect negative associations as Hesperian sandwichs assume that both member of a original group has the equal characteristics. As manpowerti unitaryd by Macdonald (2003), stereotypes homogenize people and put them under the same umbrella which matters in biased pictures. While stereotypes can be sometimes positive, s bank negative stereotypes argon much m ore(prenominal) paradoxatic, causing conflicts. (Macdonald 2003). It seems that westwarderly media is ca-ca ever so been having the slantency to misrepresent Arab Islamic women as Islam came around. As Miladi (2010) express, westbound does non know much close neither Islam nor Arab cultures nor traditions. As a result of this wish of companionship, the Hesperian sandwich media tends to represent Arab Moslem women as suppress, victimised, and ache no voice, and this is because of Islam, chief(prenominal)ly the wipe out. In his research paper, Morin (2009) tiered out that the shroud is world perverted by the occidental media since forever the westbound media is fascinated by the humeral disguise or the Hijab. The issue of veil and women who wear the veil is a rough-cut misunderstood concept in the West. Hesperianers often burnk that this is a acerb custom that Islam requires of women. They claim that these women realise no freedom or gravitas for w earing these veils and that they look like ghosts in this custom. In some gray-headed movies, the Islamic custom is depicted as a path for women to correspond with identity and her sexuality. But in fact, these veils actuality help protect women. (Posetty, 2006). Stereotypes may fritter a port the form of both physical stereotypes and mental stereotypes. The physical stereotypes argon norm exclusivelyy related to the concept of the veil as women who wear the veil ar seen as anti-West and extremists. As for the mental stereotypes which can be very insecurityous, it is ca employ by narrow-minded conceits and false data. Mental stereotyping of Arabs in the western media includes portrays anti-Western attitudes, extremism and terrorism. In fact, the Westerns take away ignored the fact that Islam is a tolerant religion that gave women the right to be educated and the right to participate in political, economical, and social activities in their community. Women were in any case earnn the right to vote, the right to inherit property and take kill of their possessions (Miladi, 2010). Perhaps some of these rights atomic number 18 dis tout ensembleowed or denied by Moslem women today non because of Islam, but because of cultural traditions that should not be correlated to Islam. The job of these negative stereotypes has begun long time ago as it was rooted by the Arab misrepresentation. Stereotyping of Arabs has been dominating the Western media and was highly evoked since the incident of 9/11. all(a) Arabs fork out been stereotyped as terrorists and extremists. It as well started with the theory of The Clash of Civilizations that was written by Samuel P. Huntington in 1997. (Macdonald 2003). In his thesis, Huntington express that the conflicts between the West and the nerve centre East bequeath be resulted by the clashes of religions, and cultures, and that t here is a impertinently enemy to the Western world that is emerging which is Islam. concord to Morin (2009), what also evoked the stereotyping to wards Arabs and Islamic world is that the Arab media that is also practicing stereotyping of Westerners as enemies of Islam and Islamics across the world.Somehow through and through these misconceptions, Western media is ever so under the impression that Arab women be caged in the Arab world and its culture as well as being crush and victimized bonny because of the way they dress. Because of these symbols, it is always neglected that there ar so many business women in the Arab world and that the rate of education in the Arab world is very high among women who indicates that women argon well educated at the Arab World as well as that they are granted closely the same rights of men (Ahmed, 1992). In hostelry to improve the situation in the Western media according to Ahmed (1992), it is the role of mass media to draw fracture collar about the Arab cultures, religions, and traditions about the Arab Muslim women . In addition, it is the Arab Muslim womens role in political, social, and cultural fields to channelise these stereotyping that is dominating the mass media. II. Literature surveilSince the last couple of decades, the subjects of Islam, the Muslim community and especially Muslim women seem to concur dominated the Western media. It started with the excessive coverage of kinfolk 11, the war in Afghanistan and Iraq, the banning of the veil in Europe, to the terrorist attacks and suicide bombers in the center of perplexity East. These are just a a couple of(prenominal) emblems to name that the Western societies and countries make been absorbing in their daily lives, eventually forming their attitudes, perceptions and ideas about the Muslim world.It all started with Samuel P. Huntington (1997) Clash of Civilizations, according to Macdonald (2006). It was Huntington who came inside reach of this businessatic relationship between the East and the West. Clash of Civilizations is a part in his book that is called The end Vs. The West. (Macdonald, 2006). After the Cold War ended, the desire to search for a raw(a) global ideological little terror has emerged to replace the collapse of Communism. Since then, it was predicted by the Westerns experts that the Western World is facing a new enemy Islam. Macdonald (2006). Huntington notion pointed out that Islam has a noticeable contradictory vision and action to the Western ideology, ideas of liberty, and democracy. This phenomenon has been positive and spread into a discourse and got fully attention of the Westerns (United States, the United body politic and its allies) perceptions and its relationships towards the world of the Middle East, the Muslims and Islam. As a result of such phenomenon and ideology, the sterile idea that Islam and its followers are anti-democracy and anti-Western has decease fixed within the minds of the Western society. (Macdonald, 2006).The acts of stereotyping persuade people to respond and be seduce in the same way that is both negative and prejudiced. The word Arabs is meant to portray a person from the Middle East, it also meant to portray this Arab as terrorist, ignorant, and a person that contradicts with the Western ideologies. In spite of the reality that these persons are from different countries, with varied cultures, attitudes, beliefs, and a potpourri of religions, they are typify by angiotensin converting enzyme word Arabs. (Cheney, 1986). Several movies have been misrepresenting Arabs men and women through the years. It is has been pointed out by Cheney (1986), that Jack Shaheen, (2003), stated that 900 films through by in the American cinema understanded how Arab men women and children determine as different and threatening. Hollywood films from 1896 until today picture Arabs as flinty, enemies, cruel, burglars, extremist in their religion, brutal murderers, and sophisticaters of women. (Cheney, 1986). History shows that since the begi nning of cinema, Hollywoods movies have been misrepresenting Arab women. Clearly, film demonstraters did not create these images but inherited Europes pre-existing Arab stereotypes. These images have been created long ago in the 18th and 19th centuries, European artists and writers offered fictional versions of women as bathed and subservient exotic inclinations. As a result, through the time, the stereotype came to be accepted as valid, becoming a permanent part of European popular culture (Cheney, 1986). In his book Reel mischievous Arabs, Shaheen noticed that In Arabian Nights fantasies such as The Sheik (1921), Slave Girl (1947), and John Goldfarb, interest Come Home (1964), Arab women appear as leering out from thin veils, or as unsatisfied, disposable knick-knacks lounging on ornate cushions, scantily-clad harem maidens with deprive midriffs, closeted in the palaces womens quarters and/or on display in break ones back markets (Shaheen, 200123, cited in Cheney, 1986). Th e stream haps in the third millennium. In Disneys retread of around the World in Eighty Days (2004), for example, Arnold Schwarzenegger portrays Prince Hapi, a Mideast sheikh with one hundred or so wives. This means that films continue to show Arab charhood as a slave for sex, even though the image of a terrorist dominated after 9/11.A research paper aimed to go bad U.S. and international parolepaper articles on Arab and Muslim women from 9/11/01 till 9/11/05, in order to understand how women who wear the veil are represented in western media. It was found that Reporters rarely give women the chance to speak to look beyond the stereotype and get to know Arab women. Whether loaded, victimized or turned into a super char charr, that cleaning woman in the news is more often not parody of the Arab and Muslim woman in real life. Readers have not yet able to receive a consistent and accurate representation of the diverse personalities, lives and opinions of these women. (Sakr, 2 004). Its been always known that TV shows influence Western people perceptions and attitudes towards various issues, especially when it comes to issues related to the Middle East and Arabs. So, most of the misperceptions towards Arab women are ca utilize by the flow of information through TV stations. (Kaufer Al Malki 2009)According to Kaufer Al Malki (2009), on the 28th of September 2009, Oprah Winfrey hosted the Goodwill Ambassador for the UNICEF the famous Lebanese singer Nancy Ajram on her TV show on CBS station. In that show, Winfrey referred to Lebanon as being deeply right and presented a documentary that shows Lebanese women veil like the Afghani ones and compared these women with Nancys Ajram mode and dance moves. With no doubt, Oprahs documentary misrepresented Lebanese women and created misconception in the minds of Western people about Lebanese women who are the most new(a)ized women in the region. In fact, Nancy Ajram style and fashion represent a large segment of Lebanese females. Statistics show that 75% of the Lebanese women are un conceal and have freedom of dress they have their full education that exceeds that of men with 44 % compared to 40 % of men. The media is fascinated by the portrayal of Arab women and they way they dress. According to Ahmed (1992), when it comes to portraying Muslim woman, the media in the West seems to be attentive and obsessed by the way they dress which is the veil in particular which has resulted in a big(p) number of reactions and debates. These debates shows that the veil is perceived as a soft touch of cultural difference in the Western world as it strike out Arab women from Western ones. (Ahmed, 1992). Muslim Arab woman are always badly portray as the shapeless and ghost women in their Islamic dress .they are really confusing the western normal people as its not their fault that what they are seeing on TV is that its the fault of the western media. The Negative stereotyping and reactionary reporting have historically symbolized coverage of Islam and Muslims and have been reflected clearly in the theory of Orientalism created by Edward Said in 1978 which states that the East and its populations are considered backward, barbaric and outsiders to Western society. (Posetty, 2008). As a result, it seems that the media helps in creating the image of the Muslim women as the oppressed other, which will unfold to imprecise conclusions, stereotypes and misperceptions of these women. (Macdonald,2006).According to the Orientalist theory, when women are portrayed, they are portrayed as being oppressed, exotic, mysterious, and shy. In addition, the Western media have always been portraying Arabs as violent, stupid, and cruel people that address women as objects and that they are marginalized in their own society, and that the East all besides in their image for the West. (Macdonald,2006). Therefore, when the Western media frames women as sexual slave and oppressed by men as they are abus ing their women, beaten, and humiliated, they are being reliable as this is the image that has been always stuck in the Westerns minds. In fact, the West has been stereotyping Arab women since forever, and they didnt change their look for the Arab women till now. Photographs and Frencp9th Century paintings represented Arab women as property, toy of men, submissive and lifelessness, dependent on a man who is the only motive for their survival. (kaufer, 2009). harm such as the veil, the harem, female circumcision helped in the formation of such misconceptions as well as gave the impression to some of the associated images with the oppressed Muslim woman. The problem is that these perceptions have been incorrectly generalized with no differentiation. (Gwinn, 1997). This problem has made it harder for the veiled Muslim women living in the West, as they tend to suffer more from the intolerance from the way they dress, in addition, they are hardly accepted in the Western communities. ( Mohanty, 2005).Arab women in immigrant communities and who are living in Western societies, are victims of these negative stereotypes and gender based media representations. As Morin (2009), noted that these women face negative media coverage that is based on cultural misconceptions and the recent political conflicts that have spoiled Arab-Western relations. As a result, Arab women in immigrant communities cannot win the fight for better media recognition while they continue to be viewed inside the limit of conventional Arab-Islamic stereotypes. (Morin, 2009).As Posetty (2008) stated in his article, in the portrayal of Muslim women, attention is frequently focused on the way they dress, with their clothing seen as a symbol of their threatening, alien status. Images of Islamic dress are increasingly used in the media as visual shorthand for dangerous extremism, and Muslims all over Europe are suffering from the consequences of such associations. The main problem as Ahmed (1992) poin ted out, is that the act of hide among Muslim women or the veil it egotism is often associated with the lack of traditionalism and backwardness that does not fit into the modern society and among Western women who do not need to veil (Ahmed, 1992). This phenomenon suggests that we can reach the other cultural difference and how the West is fascinated with otherness and still continues within the Western media towards the Muslim world (Ahmed, 1992).Ayish (2010) pointed out in his paper that the Western media tends to portray Arab men as aggressive and abusers of women, and that they control women. Media portray that the women is always wearing her veil, staying at home raising children and only obey her married man who she fears. Newspapers studies has showed that Western illustration of Muslim marriage issues is vague and this is because the lack of the knowledge of foreign cultures and religions One could disagree that the major(ip) issue is Islamophobia, many Western journalists, unfamiliar with Islam religion, have a tendency to view the faith as cruel, backward and the contradictory of tolerance. (Ayish, 2010).Morin (2009) stated in his research that stories investigated about Muslim women have shown that Western news reports represents women as the oppressed, mistreated married woman, who is obligated to a prearranged marriage by her parents or obligated out of a marriage, and that she is lost(p) and voiceless in both situations. other disproportionate as stated by Ayish (2010), Sometimes, the Arab Muslim women is represented as the money hunter, who does not bet about who she marries as long as the man she is vent to unite is rich enough to indulge her hunger for money. In these situations on the other hand, Arab Muslim men hypothesize with different greed, they are sexually divest and tends to treat women as sexual objects. The men are also tart and controlling, playing with womens feelings and threats women through oral divorce. Women are thus represented by the Western media as weak and have no rights which permit men to claim transcendency (Ayish, 2010).Dominant images of the veiled Muslim woman are always covered in the Western media to present the Muslim woman as a victim as well as being oppressed. (Ahmed, 1992). The veiled of Arab Muslim women has always been misrepresented by the media as it has became a symbol of the oppression of the Muslim woman. This representation as stated by Ahmed (1992), has been highly evoked since the event of the 9/11. As noted in Posetty (2008) research paper, Alison Donnell argues that the September 11 terrorist attacks resulted in media representations of veiling as an object of mystique, exoticism and eroticism and that the veil, or headscarf, is seen as a highly panoptical sign of a despised difference. The oppression of Muslim women has been regularly used in Western media as suggestive of the barbaric and pre-modern characteristics of Islam. As Helen Watson comments in her arti cle the image of the veiled Muslim woman seems to be one of the most popular Western ways of representing the problem of Islam. (Posetty, 2008). According to Ahmed (1992), the veil has become the typical symbol of womens oppression in Islam, and is perceived as it creates hostility to Westerns. In fact, the Western media has ignored the fact that veiling as a practice existed before the rise of Islam, especially in Syria and Arabia. It was also a custom among Greeks, Romans, Jews and Assyrians, and not only to Islam. At that time, the veiled Arab woman was perceived as respectable and protected. (Ahmed, 1992).However, as Ahmed (1992) pointed out, the veiled woman is commonly represented as having denied pleasure, fun, or bodily self-expression. In some of the Western conceptualizations veiling is used as a means of performing womanhood self-exploration and play with identity. With these ascension and continuous prejudices a throw outst Muslims and, especially, Muslim women, it see ms to demonstrate that there is still a huge gap, a barrier that appears to prevent a sense, grace and understanding towards the Muslim other. And by the other we mean the oppressed, the traditional-bound, the factory-worker, the poor, etc. (Macdonald,2006). As mentioned before, besides the veil, discussions of the circumcision, polygamy, the sharia (Islamic) law, the harem, forced marriages, etc, are just a few issues that have made this group of women fit into the absolute, homogenous oppressed Muslim woman category. (Macdonald,2006). As noted in Falah Nagel (2005) paper, the problem lies when these visual images tend to portray Muslim women as a stereotypical figure an oppressed figure suffering from a harsh culture. The veil especially is the major theme that is associated with the limitations and the oppression of Muslim Arab women as it was constantly deployed and replayed again in our visually dominated culture. Falah Nagel (2005) argue that the veil is not only representi ng the oppressed Muslims and Muslim women world, but also the hidden assumption about the superiority of the West in relation to that world. In this case, the figure of the veiled Muslim woman that is being represented through the media, is tending to represent these women as passive victims, muted, untraditional, and oppressed, which therefore creates a cultural-ideological barrier with the Western women. Thus, the problem is that the danger that is resulted from these representations of veiled Muslim women tends to create a division between Western women (as modern, liberated) and Eastern women (as backward, oppressed), while also ignoring the diversity of practices, views and experiences of these women. As Falah Nagel (2005) pointed out, it seems important that the oppugn on how to communicate with the other who is culturally and traditionally different has become one of the most urgent and immediate agendas within North-South/West-East relations and interactions. What is manda tory is an understanding of this sense of urgency, gaps and barriers that links to the Westerns knowledge of the veiled Muslim woman (Falah Nagel, 2005). As a result, veiled Muslim women become muted and misrepresented. Another major feature found in the Western media especially in advertising is the imagined perspectives such as the myths and fantasies Western culture has about Islam, the Muslims, and especially, veiled Muslim women. This means that not only misconceptions and misunderstandings towards Muslim women have been continuous in modern times, but it has also became widespread and universal by the advent of modern technology. (Falah Nagel, 2005). Miladi (2010) pointed out in his research paper that modern images of Muslim women in American advertisements, argues that Western advertisers tend to spread stereotypes and the reproach representations of the veil and Muslim women in order to appeal to consumers. As a result, advertisers use certain images of Muslim women that have been historically fixed in the Western mind, such as the harem, the hammas (public baths), the mysterious veiled woman or the oppressed woman living under an oppressive ruler or men and use this to attract consumers. The veil especially is itself is considered as an rattling(a) marketing tool, as marketers often use the veil in order to sell sex. (Miladi, 2010). The use of the oppressed women and the veil in advertisements will make the Western consumers think that by buying the advertised product as well as buying the favors of the mysterious woman behind the veil. (Miladi, 2010). The problem as stated by Miladi (2010), is that Westerners are usually buying certain products for buying these imaginary images of the other. As a result, through the continuous and repetitious collective exposition to the media, a larger collective imagination will continue to be created and produced about this image of the imaginary veiled Muslim woman other. As mentioned by Gwinn (1997), the o ppressed veiled Muslim woman in the ads may also be connected to the rising prejudices and debates that surround Muslim women and the veil in the Western world. The oppressed stereotypes of Arab Muslim women as stated by Ahadi (2009), has negative impacts on those women that is very obvious. Stereotypes pass along when individuals are classifieds by others as having something in common because they are members of a particular group or category of people. Media stereotyping of women as objects and helpless beings creates very low expectations for societys Arab women. As mentioned by Morin (2009), women living abroad face classifiable discriminations from the Western communities. Western women are always considered as superior to Arab Muslim women especially, the veiled ones. In fact, Arab Muslim women are being oppressed by the negative representations created by the Western media. In addition, these representations may impact on these women psychologically as Western populations pe rceive the veil as a barrier between them and the veiled women. III. Body Numerous stereotypes and defaming of Arab Muslim women have been controlling the western media. Samuel P. Huntington wrote a theory called Clash of Civilization about Islam has different believes and values that contradict with the Western idea of liberty and democracy, and that Islam is the only enemy of westerns and the main reason that the world will not going to improve. Islam and Arabs have a way of thinking and believes that is very different than the west has. And that the west see that the road to freedom and democracy of the societies is blocked by the Islam ideologies that block the world from reaching freedom and democracy at its fullest point, from here the stereotyping of Arab Muslim women began. The stereotyping of Arabs in general has taken its fullest load since the incident of 9/11. Westerns have blamed Muslims and Arabs for this tragic incident, and they started to look at them as the main en emies of the west and that if there are any terrorists in the world they are Muslims or Arab Muslims. The westerns have been Arabs have been subjected to discrimination and violence since 9/11, a Muslim girl for example that works in a term of a contract car company was simply fired because she was told that she cannot wear her veil, also a hotel employee stated that he was cursed many times and that people called him Taliban and Osama. pursuance the September 9/11 attacks on the USA, stereotyping of Muslims, and Muslim women began with such great hatred toward Muslims and Arabs. That the Islam and Muslims are terrorists, thieves, spiteful, merciless, extremist, vicious murderers, and abusers of women. The beginning of the stereotyping of women in the western media was that the women are abused by the Arab men, and they are beaten and they are sex tools for the men, and they abuse them mentally and physically, and that they only please the wishes of men without thinking, and theses are some examples of the way of the western media portrayals of Arab Muslim women.After the attacks of 9/11, the world initiated a fight down against Islam and they started condemning Islam as a religion of violence and terrorists. Surrounded by all these accusation there were people who needed to understand the accuracy of the religion of Islam, to know if it is in fact a religion of terrorism or not?. The overstatements of the media reporting after 9/11 attacks, lead the people to be convinced that the Arabs and Muslims are terrorists and they are cruel and heartless that they want to demolish the west. Hollywood and media personnel are also obligated for making the people believe that the Muslims and Arabs are terrorists.Film creators, and Cinema producers continue to make movies and films that target the Arabs as a terrorists and murderers, they stereotype the Arabs with the 5 Bs, which are Billionaires, Bombers, Belly dancers, Bedouins, and Barbarians. Jack Shaheen made a m ovie called Reel Bad Arabs demonstrated that the western movies industry are rabid with portraying Arab women in their movies, and they portray the Arab women from the western point of views, and they didnt change anything during the years of portraying of Arab women, its the same point of view. Jack Shaheen said that the portray in western media of Arab women are mostly as slave girls, a woman wears veil that shows all her body, they are belly dancers that seduce men, barbarian, they are gold diggers, that they are welling to do absolutely anything for the sake of their well being. Jack Shaheen in the part of the western portrayals of Arab women as gold diggers, and barbarians and gypsies is right and I agree with him in this part. Furthermore, the remake of the Disney movie Around the world in 80 days they show Arnold Schwarzenegger as an Arab Sheikh, that have over a 100 wives, that are slaves just for sex. This shows that the Arab men are not pleased with just one woman or wife they need more from everything, even from women. This part tackles a very important issue which is Shariaa Islamic law, which states that the man has the right to bond 4 wives at the same time, and this believe of marring more than one wife is totally rejected in the western believes and ideologies from the beginning, they dont understand this part from the Islamic law to talk about it or to misrepresent it like this in their movies. Even though they portray Arab women in diverse descriptions, Slave girl, playful, self centered, but after the September 9/11 attacks, the terrorist image was the image that controlled over the mind of the western people and the western media.The TV master the people in a huge way, it affects the attitude, behavior, believes and the opinions of the people. Media people take gain of this point, and the western people are badly informed about Arabs and Arab women, and that their information about Arabs is from movies and TV shows. The image there are c onsistent in the movies is that the Arabs are terrorists, they take this part and they stereotype Arabs and Arab women without studying them or their culture, they stereotype them in the way they would like the world to see them in it. they have succeeded in making the people when they hear the word Arab or Arab women they think of terrorists, cruel, merciless, barbarians, gypsies, robbers, monsters, beaters of women, use women just for sex, women are slaves.Its widely known from the western media and western image what is the image the Arab have in general, the image that have started by the Arab are Orientalists about Harem of the Arab, Arab dancing, Arab women are locked in doors and they are not allowed to get out except with the permission of her husband, and that the women are substandard than men, they are not allowed to be involved in public issues. These are the idea and images that the western have about the Arab women, in western media and cartoons regrettably.The majorit y of Arabs are passive to the stereotypes of western media toward them, but for the Arab women the issue is very sensitive. Western media is fanatical about the dress code of Arab women, mostly the Veil of the Arab women. Arab women are portrayed as overweight, loose-fitting women, in their loose dress and their unattractive shaped veil that doesnt show the feature of their body, they portray them even in caricature and some magazine and programs. The concept of the Arab veil for the western was always that the Arab women have the life of suppressed and the victimized, poor, isolated creature politically and culturally that is forcibly is wearing this veil and is being like this. According to Gwinn (1997), he tackled the point that the veil of the Arab women is reflecting in the western media to be the well-known method of representing the Arab women and to represent the dilemma of Islam. The fact is the veil was in the pre Islam era, was the custom of Romans, Jews, and Greeks. But after the Islam had spread and the Muslim women started to wear the veil as God said to cover their hair, the west started to stereotype the veil with Islam and Muslim women, and finally terrorists women. The veil of Arab women is distinguished as a threatening to the peace and as a terrorist symbol and its also seen as a alien as state by Posetty (2008) in his article. The way Arab women dress and the veil is seen in the western media as a symbol of terrorists. Consequently, the Arabs are suffering from the result of these stereotypes all over Europe and the west countries, that make them in a continues threat every minute of everyday due to these portrayals. According to Ahmed (1992), the issue of veiling of women is that the concept is associated to the lack of traditional values and backwardness that doesnt go with the

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