Thursday, March 7, 2019
Vygotsky and Paigets Perspective of Learning
The theorists, Piaget and Vygotsky twain had views on the signifi rout outce of geting and the role of play, which they considered organismness a crucial part of a kids ripening. Although they had the likes of views, they differed in terms of what electric shaverren do when they play (Drewery & Bird, 2004). This essay posts learning opportunities and examples of childrens play through roll in the hay, events and interactions with people, places and things. Piaget explained the importance of learning through play, in which children explored and experimented for themselves with negligible fully gr avow interactions.He considered development went through four degrees sensori-motor, pre- in operation(p), cover operational and the formal operational comprise. (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2004). The sensori-motor period (0-2 years) is the 1st stage, as the infants interactions ar based on exploring their environment through their senses and abilities to practice schemas, such( prenominal) as grasping and sucking, this also included practice play as the infant is able to repeat actions continuously but with no intention. This stage follows on to the pre-operational stage (2-7) where childrens language is developing rapidly, allowing them to express themselves.They argon starting to role pretend play and parallel play which promoter children argon talking but it is not directed to others. This also convey that they only see the world in their terms, they are egocentric (Drewery and Bird, 2004). The concrete operation (7-11) and the formal operational (11-adult) periods are the third and fourth stages. These are not considered in early childhood education but are still important as they brush aside think realistically and logically round situations and understand their world (Pulaski, 1980). However, Vygotsky argued differently.He proposed that children are social learners and like to explore and discover new things with the dish up of adults and peer s. This was scaffolding and the zone of proximal development (ZPD). He also considered conclusion borders, language and thinking (Whitebread, 2003 cited in Beaumont, 2002). He thought children could perform kick downstairs with others than on their own. This is shown through the ZPD, the digression between what children can do alone and with help. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed there were things that children couldnt understand.However, Vygotsky believed that given proper help children could perform what Piaget would consider, not possible. Scaffolding however, meant that in order for a child to learn, a more competent adult or peer can help support and guide the childs learning through the ZPD until the child is able to do the proletariat alone which helps the child use private nomenclature, a way of taste is to talk to themselves and also to reason, problem solve, extend memory and liking skills (Woolfolk, 2004 cited by Educational Psychology, n. d. ).Vygotsky considered hea and indeedish surroundings, language and thinking to be important. He verbalize for children to learn, they need to interact through communication with others. This was explained through cultural influences and what was important within each setting. Language is part of culture, which is the key to communication virtually customs and nonplus of people. Through cultural tools, such as books and television, we could help extend childrens communication skills with others in their environment (Tauranga Regional large-minded Kindergarten Association, 2003).These theorists can support learning opportunities within Aotearoa through experiences, events, and interactions with people, places and things. For Piaget however, his first cardinal stages are only considered in early childhood education (Nuttall, 2003). Piaget considers that children learn vanquish when their left to discover their world by themselves through active involvement but adults need to provide stimulating act ivities within their environment (Hedges, 2003). The Aotearoa context gives children the independence to experience and learn about what they enjoy on their own through experiences, events and interactions, with little supervision.It also encourages them to explore and develop knowledge and skills at their own pace. Ministry of Education (1998) states that, Educators should enhance childrens learning and development through extending childrens thinking and actions through sensitive and informed guidance, interventions and support (p. 19). Piagets practice play and pretend play are back up in Aotearoa. These are concepts used to explain the childs use of creativity and spontaneous play which provides great interactions with people, places and things.Each child brings experiences from their own environment which builds knowledge and skills amongst children but this can be slightly difficult, as children naturally parallel play (Drewery & Bird, 2004). A way to enhance their interests could be a dress-up day. The Ministry of Education (1996) explains that Children experience an environment where their play is valued as meaningful learning and the importance of spontaneous play is recognised (p. 84) Vygotskys theory is well acknowledged in Aotearoa.He believed that children learn best through social environments which lead to powerful and competent learners. Children learn better through the ZPD with the support of an adult or peer. This provides the use of private speech for the child, which creates better catch and extends skills such as problem solving and imagination (Connor & Diggins, 2002). According to Royal Tangaeres theory of learning, some of Vygotskys ideas think to hers. She believed in the Tuakana/Teina concept which was related to the ZPD and scaffolding.The Tuakana (older sibling) contributes to the Teinas (younger sibling) learning and vise versa. This provides both siblings the responsibility of ako (learning as well as teaching (Te Whaiki, McCa rthy & Durie, 1997). Secondly, Vygotsky believed that each child brings with them, their own cultural experiences from their environment as a way of communicating. As a multi-cultural nation, it is important to consider each childs culture therefore part of culture is language and the values and beliefs that influence them. As teachers we are encouraged to be aware of other cultures.When we learn about the culture of children we are able to understand and help them learn and experience more about culture through communication such as books or music (Tauranga Regional Free Kindergarten, 2003). We could also organize cultural outings to Museums which is a great place for learning. As Ministry of Education (1996) states, Children experience an environment where there are equitable opportunities for learning, irrespective of gender, ability, age, ethnicity, or orbit (p. 66). Examples of these theories are shown throughout childrens play.Piagets idea of the sensori-motor stage and the p re-opertional stage can be put into practice as follows Infant A is lying down on her stomach, where toys are placed in trend of her. She picks up a soft ball, looks at it then puts it in her mouth, drops it then picks up a rattle and turns on to her back. She lifts it up and shakes and listens to the noise. She then puts it in her mouth then continues the enjoyment of shaking the rattle. Toddler The wiggles come on and children start dancing, B gets up and begins to dance.As he listens to the sounds of a car, he pretends to drive going, Brum brum , and then drives around the room saying, Im ride my car Young Child A is in the sandpit with children surrounding her. She picks up a frying pan and pretends to make a spread over with sand. A then picks up a spoon and pretends to mix the cake, then places it down saying, Cook for 2 minutes using her fingers to count. She pulls it out unbowed after and says, Mmm, smells good That will be for me and mummy. Vygotskys views can be shown in practice through an infant as M is learning to walk, he can stand up while holding onto the couch, he wants to let go, but does not have the balance or coordination.A teacher comes over and M reaches out his authorizes, gesturing that he needfully help. She takes his hands and walks with him saying, Good boy, youre doing so well She then lets go to see if he can stand on his own, he stands for a hardly a(prenominal) seconds then falls. He crawls back to the couch, stands up and gestures to the teacher to help. She stands terce feet away, puts out her hands and says, Try again. He takes a few steps then falls again. Toddler L wants to climb up the plank. The teacher recognises that he is not confident enough on his own.She takes his hand nd helps him, he turns around and repeats this a few times, the teacher lets go of his hand half way up, he stops and says, Help teacher says, You can do it, have a go, Ill stay with you. feel unsure, he has a go while the teacher encoura ges him. In being successful, L is overjoyed, and the teacher supports the accomplishment. Young Child H is learning literacy, he seems to be frustrated and is struggling. The teacher approaches him, and asks if he wants help. H replies, Yeah, I cant do it. Firstly, the teacher writes his name at the top and says, H, repeat over your name with a pen. Yep, H says.In doing so, the teacher encourages him and supports his learning. The teacher helps H do his literacy activity until he is able to do it himself. He shows her when he is finished then she gets him to put a smiley brass instrument on the page, to show what a great job he did. in that location are many more theories that could be acknowledged throughout this word of honor but Piaget and Vygotsky will always provide teachers with a solid understanding of how children learn and the role of play which provides great learning opportunities for experiences, events and interactions with people, places and things within parvenu e Zealand.